OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether a restrictive compared to a liberal fluid therapy will increase postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe preeclampsia. METHODS: A total of 46 patients (mean age, 32 years; standard deviation, 6.8 years) with severe preeclampsia were randomized to liberal (1500 ml of lactated Ringer’s, n=23) or restrictive (250 ml of lactated Ringer’s, n=23) intravenous fluid regimen during cesarean section. The primary outcome was the development of a postoperative renal dysfunction defined by AKI Network stage ≥1. Serum cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated at postoperative days 1 and 2. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02214186. RESULTS: The rate of postoperative AKI was 43.5% in the liberal fluid group and 43.5% in the restrictive fluid group (p=1.0). Intraoperative urine output was higher in the liberal (116 ml/h, IQR 69-191) than in the restrictive fluid group (80 ml/h, IQR 37-110, p<0.05). In both groups, serum cystatin C did not change from postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period and significantly decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). In the restrictive fluid group, NGAL levels increased on postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period (p<0.05) and decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Among patients with severe preeclampsia, a restrictive fluid regimen during cesarean section was not associated with increased postoperative AKI.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of decidual natural killer (dNK) cells and their cytokines in twin pregnancies with preeclampsia. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study. The inclusion criteria were diamniotic (monochorionic or dichorionic) twin pregnancies in the third trimester with negative serological results for infectious diseases; absence of major fetal abnormalities or twin-twin transfusion syndrome; and no history of administration of corticosteroids in this pregnancy. The control group (CG) included uncomplicated twin pregnancies, and the preeclampsia group (PEG) included twin gestations with clinical and laboratory confirmation of the disease according to well-established criteria. Samples of the decidua were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of dNK cells and interleukins (ILs) 10, 12 and 15. In addition, maternal serum samples were collected to determine the levels of these interleukins. RESULTS: Thirty twin pregnancies were selected: 20 in the control group (CG) and 10 in the preeclampsia group (PEG). The PEG showed strong placental immunostaining for IL-15 (p=0.001) and high maternal serum levels of IL-10 (22.7 vs. 11.9 pg/mL, p=0.024) and IL-15 (15.9 vs. 7.4 pg/mL, p=0.024). CONCLUSION: A higher maternal serum concentration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors was observed in the twin pregnancies in the PEG. However, no difference in placental expression of IL-10 was found between the groups. These findings may suggest that maternal attempts to balance these interleukins were not sufficient to cause a placental response, and this failure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia.
Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.