Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate access to oral health services among adolescents enrolled in public schools of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, a large-size municipality in the Northeast of Brazil. An observational, descriptive, analytical, quantitative, and cross-sectional study was carried out through a school survey, in which four validated questionnaires were applied to 438 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Data were processed using the SPSS statistical software version 20.0, with bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis through Poisson regression. About 90.9% of adolescents reported having visited the dentist at least once; however, when considering the last 6 months, this percentage fell to 48.4%. Adolescents used private services (50.2%) or the public service (49.8%). About 70.6% of interviewees reported dental treatment (61.1%) as the main reason for seeking the service. Through multivariate analysis, it was observed that the demand for the service was higher among female adolescents (60.5%, p <0.001); the other variables did not present statistically significant differences. In conclusion, the access to oral healthcare services reported by adolescents was good, but there is still a considerable part of this population with no access. Variables that presented significant associated with dental services were gender and toothache history, but only gender remained significant in the multivariate model.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in children’s dentifrices marketed in the city of Lima, Peru. Three samples of 23 dentifrices (4 without fluoride and 19 with fluoride) were purchased in different pharmacies in Lima, Peru. The TF and TSF concentrations found in the dentifrices were determined by ion-selective electrode, expressed in ppm F (μg F/g of dentifrice). The TF concentration in the majority of the fluoride toothpastes matched that shown on the label, except for one declared as 1450 ppm F by the manufacturer, whereas only 515.1 ppm F was found. The concentration of TSF found in the fluoride toothpastes ranged from 457.5 to 1134.8 ppm F. All the dentifrices were formulated with silica, but one also presented calcium carbonate. In conclusion, 83% of the children’s dentifrices marketed in Lima, Peru, were fluoridated, but only 53% contained a TSF concentration greater than 1000 ppm F, the minimum concentration required to provide an anticaries effect.
Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of individual and contextual factors on the occurrence of toothache in five-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 756 five-year-old children from public and private preschools in a city in the countryside of the northeast of Brazil. The sample was determined through probabilistic sampling in two stages (preschools and children). The children included could not have systematic diseases, permanent tooth or orthodontic treatment. Parents/caregivers were required to spend at least 12 hours per day with their children. The history of toothache during the life of the child was reported by parents/guardians. Socioeconomic and psychological questionnaires were completed by parents/guardians. Variables related to social context were obtained from the preschools in which the children studied and the official publications of the municipal region. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel Poisson regression models were used to investigate the association between individual and contextual characteristics and history of toothache. The history of toothache was found for 23.8% of the children. Among the individual determinants, gender of the child, order of birth, and schooling of parent/guardian were associated with toothache in children. The individual variables remained associated with the outcome after the addition of the contextual variables to the model. The type of preschool was the contextual determinant associated with toothache in the final model. Both individual (gender, order of birth and schooling of parents/guardians) and contextual (type of preschool) determinants were associated with history of toothache in five-year-old children.
Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de fatores individuais e contextuais na ocorrência de dor de dente em crianças de cinco anos de idade. Um estudo transversal foi realizado com 756 crianças de cinco anos de idade de pré-escolas públicas e privadas em uma cidade no interior do Nordeste do Brasil. A seleção da amostra foi realizada por meio de amostragem probabilística em duas etapas (pré-escolas e crianças). As crianças incluídas não poderiam ter doenças sistêmicas, dentes permanentes ou tratamento ortodôntico. Foram incluídos apenas pais/responsáveis que passavam pelo menos 12 horas por dia com seus filhos. O histórico de dor de dente durante a vida da criança foi relatado pelos pais/responsáveis. Os questionários socioeconômicos e psicológicos foram preenchidos pelos pais/responsáveis. As variáveis relacionadas ao contexto social foram obtidas na pré-escola em que as crianças estudaram e nas publicações oficiais da região municipal. Os modelos de regressão de Poisson multinível não ajustados e ajustados foram utilizados para investigar a associação entre características individuais e contextuais e histórico de dor de dente. O histórico de dor de dente foi encontrado em 23,8% das crianças. Entre os determinantes individuais, gênero da criança, ordem de nascimento e escolaridade dos pais/responsáveis foram associados com dor de dente em crianças. As variáveis individuais permaneceram associadas ao resultado após a adição das variáveis contextuais ao modelo. O tipo de pré-escola foi o determinante contextual associado ao histórico de dor de dente no modelo final. Tanto o indivíduo (gênero, ordem de nascimento e escolaridade dos pais/responsáveis) quanto os determinantes contextuais (tipo de pré-escolar) foram associados com o histórico de dor de dente em crianças de cinco anos de idade.
RESUMEN Objetivos Identificar el perfil de los pacientes con diagnóstico de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) de la boca y los factores asociados a la estadificación clínica de la enfermedad. Métodos Estudio transversal con muestra de 293 historias de pacientes portadores de CEC, atendidos en un Centro de Referencia de Oncología del municipio de Campina Grande (PB), de 2000 a 2006. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial por medio de la Regresión Robusta de Poisson (α=5%). Resultados El sexo masculino (56,6%), los no blancos¿? (49,0%) y el grupo de más de 60 años (74,1%) fueron los más afectados por la neoplasia; la lengua (35,1%) y el paladar (21,5%) fueron los sitios más afectados; la mayoría poseía hábito de tabaquismo (37,6%) y el 60,2% presentaba etapa avanzada de la enfermedad. La estadificación clínica no se asoció al sexo, la edad, el color de la piel y a los hábitos de beber y/o fumar. Conclusiones Se observó una mayor ocurrencia de CEC en hombres, en pacientes con edad más avanzada, no blancos y que poseían hábitos de tabaquismo, pero sin asociación estadística.
ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to identify the profile of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and factors associated with the clinical stage of the disease. Materials and Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 293 medical charts of patients with SCC treated at an oncology reference center in the city of Campina Grande (Brazil) between 2000 and 2006. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed with robust Poisson regression (α=5%). Results Males (56.6%), non-white individuals (49.0%) and individuals over than 60 years of age (74.1%) were the most affected by SCC. The tongue (35.1%) and palate (21.5%) were the most common sites. A large portion of the patients were smokers (37.6%) and 60.2% were in an advanced stage of the disease. Clinical staging was not associated with sex, age, skin color or drinking and/or smoking habits. Conclusion There was a higher incidence of SCC in men, older patients, non-white individuals and smokers. Clinical staging was not associated with the variables analyzed.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with sleep bruxism in five-year-old preschool children. A preschool-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 761 pairs of children and their parents/caregivers. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed using a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers, who also answered questionnaires addressing sociodemographic data and parent’s/caregiver’s sense of coherence. Clinical oral evaluations of the children to determine dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion and tooth wear were performed by two researchers who had undergone a training exercise (interexaminer Kappa: 0.70 to 0.91; intraexaminer Kappa: 0.81 to 1.00). Descriptive analysis and logistic regression for complex samples were carried out (α = 5%). The prevalence of sleep bruxism among the preschool children was 26.9%. The multivariate analysis revealed that bruxism was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.93; 95 CI: 1.52–5.65) and tooth wear (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.39–3.96). In the present study, sleep bruxism among preschool children was associated with tooth wear and poor sleep quality of the child. In contrast, psychosocial aspects (sense of coherence) were not associated with sleep bruxism.
Abstract In the last decades, several instruments have been used to evaluate the impact of oral health problems on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of individuals. However, some instruments lack thorough methodological validation or present conceptual differences that hinder comparisons with instruments. Thus, it can be difficult to clinicians and researchers to select a questionnaire that accurately reflect what are really meaningful to individuals. This short communication aimed to discuss the importance of use an appropriate checklist to select an instrument with a good methodological quality. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was developed to provide tools for evidence-based instrument selection. The COSMIN checklist comprises ten boxes that evaluate whether a study meets the standard for good methodological quality and two additional boxes to meet studies that use the Item Response Theory method and general requirements for results generalization, resulting in four steps to be followed. In this way, it is required at least some expertise in psychometrics or clinimetrics to a wide-ranging use of this checklist. The COSMIN applications include its use to ensure the standardization of cross-cultural adaptations and safer comparisons between measurement studies and evaluation of methodological quality of systematic reviews of measurement properties. Also, it can be used by students when training about measurement properties and by editors and reviewers when revising manuscripts on this topic. The popularization of COSMIN checklist is therefore necessary to improve the selection and evaluation of health measurement instruments.
Resumo Nas últimas décadas, vários instrumentos tem sido utilizados para avaliar o impacto dos problemas de saúde bucal na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (OHRQoL) dos indivíduos. No entanto, alguns instrumentos não possuem validação metodológica completa ou apresentam diferenças conceituais que dificultam as comparações com instrumentos. Assim, pode ser difícil para clínicos e pesquisadores selecionar um questionário que reflita com precisão o que é realmente significativo para os indivíduos. Esta comunicação rápida teve como objetivo discutir a importância de usar um checklist apropriado para selecionar um instrumento com boa qualidade metodológica. O COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist foi desenvolvido para fornecer ferramentas para a seleção de instrumentos baseados em evidências. O COSMIN checklist compreende dez quadros que avaliam se um estudo atende o padrão para uma boa qualidade metodológica e dois quadros adicionais para atender a estudos que usam o método Item Response Theory e os requisitos gerais para a generalização de resultados, resultando em quatro etapas a serem seguidas. Desta forma, é necessário pelo menos alguma experiência em psicometria ou clinimetria para um amplo uso deste checklist. As aplicações do COSMIN incluem seu uso para garantir a padronização de adaptações transculturais e comparações mais seguras entre estudos de mensuração e avaliação de qualidade metodológica de revisões sistemáticas de propriedades de mensuração. Além disso, ele pode ser usado por estudantes ao treinar sobre propriedades de mensuração e por editores e revisores ao revisar manuscritos sobre este tópico. A divulgação do COSMIN checklist é, portanto, necessária para melhorar a seleção e avaliação dos instrumentos de medição da saúde.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of clinical oral factors, socioeconomic factors and parental sense of coherence on affected self-confidence in preschool children due to oral problems. A cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling was conducted at public and private preschools with 769 five-year-old children and their parents/caretakers. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic characteristics as well as the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) were administered. The dependent variable was self-confidence and was determined using the SOHO-5 tool. Dental caries (ICDAS II), malocclusion and traumatic dental injury (TDI) were recorded during the clinical exam. Clinical examinations were performed by examiners who had undergone training and calibration exercises (intra-examiner agreement: 0.82-1.00 and inter-examiner agreement: 0.80-1.00). Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analysis were performed (a=5%). Among the children, 91.3% had dental caries, 57.7% had malocclusion, 52.8% had signs of traumatic dental injury and 26.9% had bruxism. The following variables exerted a greater negative impact on the self-confidence of the preschool children due to oral problems: attending public school (PR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.09-4.68), a history of toothache (PR=4.45; 95% CI: 2.00-9.91) and weak parental sense of coherence (PR=2.27; 95% CI: 1.03-5.01). Based on the present findings, clinical variables (dental pain), socio-demographic characteristics and parental sense of coherence can exert a negative impact on self-confidence in preschool children due to oral problems.
Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a interferência de fatores clínicos bucais, socioeconômicos e senso de coerência (dos pais) no prejuízo de autoconfiança devido alterações de saúde bucal em pré-escolares. Um estudo transversal com amostra probabilística foi realizado em pré-escolas públicas e privadas com 769 crianças de 5 anos de idade e seus responsáveis. Questionários de variáveis sociodemográficas, o Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) e Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) foram aplicados na amostra. A variável dependente foi autoconfiança e coletada a partir do questionário SOHO-5. Cárie dentária (ICDAS II), má oclusão e traumatismo dentário foram registrados durante o exame clínico. Exames clínicos foram realizados nos pré-escolares por examinadores previamente calibrados (acordo intra-examinador: 0,82-1,00 e acordo inter-examinador: 0,80-1,00). Análise descritiva e Regressão de Poisson foram aplicadas (a=5%). Entre as crianças avaliadas, 91,3% apresentaram cárie dentária, 57,7% maloclusão, 52,8% traumatismo dentário e 26,9% bruxismo. As seguintes variáveis mostraram uma maior média de prejuízo na autoconfiança dos pré-escolares devido alterações de saúde bucal: frequentar pré-escola pública (PR=2,26; 95% CI: 1,09-4,68), histórico de dor de dente (PR=4,45; 95% CI: 2,00-9,91) e fraco senso de coerência dos pais (PR=2,27; 95% CI: 1,03-5,01). Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que variáveis clínicas, como a dor de dente, sociodemográfica e senso de coerência dos pais podem interferir na autoconfiança devido a alterações de saúde bucal em pré-escolares.
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the approaches used by Family Health Strategy dentists in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, for management of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional, census-based, descriptive study, 33 professionals completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their approach to management of occlusal caries in enamel and dentin of deciduous teeth in different risk situations. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact test with the level of significance set to 5%). Inter-examiner agreement was evaluated by Cohen's kappa statistic. Results For chronic enamel caries in primary teeth with low risk/activity, the approach of choice was preventive, with fluoride application being the most cited intervention (39.3%). For active carious dentin in primary teeth with high risk/activity and with low risk/activity, invasive approaches were most prevalent (93.9% and 78.8%, respectively), with complete caries removal (74.2%) and glass-ionomer restoration (69.2%) being the most frequent responses. Inter-examiner agreement was moderate (k = 0.44). Conclusion Although a wide range of approaches were adopted by dental practitioners, most preferred invasive interventions, even in situations where preservation of tooth structure was recommended.
RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a conduta de cirurgiões-dentistas da Estratégia de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil, frente à cárie oclusal em dentes decíduos. Métodos Foi um estudo observacional, transversal, censitário e descritivo no qual 33 profissionais responderam a um questionário que avaliou suas condutas diante de cáries oclusais em esmalte e dentina de dentes decíduos, em diferentes situações de risco. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial (Teste Exato de Fisher com nível de significância de 5%). A concordância inter-examinador foi avaliada pelo Teste Kappa de Cohen. Resultados Para a cárie crônica em esmalte de dentes decíduos com baixo risco/atividade de cárie a conduta de eleição foi preventiva, sendo a aplicação de flúor a mais citada (39,3%). Nos casos de cárie ativa em dentina em dentes decíduos com alto risco/atividade de cárie e de cárie ativa em dentina de dentes decíduos com baixo risco/atividade de cárie, a conduta invasiva foi a mais indicada (93,9% e 78,8%, respectivamente), sendo a remoção total do tecido cariado (74,2%) e restauração com ionômero de vidro (69,2%) as respostas mais frequentes. A concordância inter-examinador foi moderada (k=0,44). Conclusão As condutas adotadas pelos profissionais variaram bastante, havendo uma preferência por condutas caráter invasivo em situações onde a preservação da estrutura dentária era o mais indicado.
Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children’s answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children’s self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents’ version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children’s responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children’s OHRQoL.