Abstract Background: Chronic leg ulcers affect a large portion of the adult population and cause a significant social and economic impact, related to outpatient and hospital care, absence from work, social security expenses, and reduced quality of life. The correct diagnosis and therapeutic approach are essential for a favorable evolution. Objective: To gather the experience of Brazilian dermatologists, reviewing the specialized literature to prepare recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the main types of chronic leg ulcers. Methods: Seven specialists from six university centers with experience in chronic leg ulcers were appointed by the Brazilian Society of Dermatology to reach a consensus on the diagnosis and therapeutic management of these ulcers. Based on the adapted DELPHI methodology, relevant elements were considered in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic leg ulcers of the most common causes; then, the recent literature was analyzed using the best scientific evidence. Results: The following themes were defined as relevant for this consensus - the most prevalent differential etiological diagnoses of chronic leg ulcers (venous, arterial, neuropathic, and hypertensive ulcers), as well as the management of each one. It also included the topic of general principles for local management, common to chronic ulcers, regardless of the etiology. Conclusion: This consensus addressed the main etiologies of chronic leg ulcers and their management based on scientific evidence to assist dermatologists and other health professionals and benefit the greatest number of patients with this condition.
Abstract Background Dermabrasion is related with mechanical and surgical traumas on the skin; usually topical antiseptics and/or saline have been used for healing. Natural products for wound healing can also be used for abrasions, such as latex from Hevea brasiliensis. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro viability and migratory/proliferative effects of latex serum from H. brasiliensis and to compare with a commercially available standard antiseptic solution and saline in experimental dermabrasion on rats. Methods For in vitro evaluation, MTT and scratch assays were used. In vivo testing was performed in 72 rats submitted to dermabrasion, treated with saline, antiseptic, or latex serum. This study evaluated re-epithelialization, neutrophilic infiltration, and the quantification of crust and epidermis. Results Latex showed viability at 1% and 0.1% concentrations and migratory/proliferative activity at 0.01% concentrations. The re-epithelialization was highest in latex group on 7th day. The latex group displayed lower thickness of crusts and greater extent of epidermal layers. The latex and antiseptic groups showed increases of myeloperoxidase levels on the 2nd day and showed important reductions from the 7th day. Study limitations Acute superficial wound model in rats and non-use of gel-cream (medium) without latex. Conclusion In conclusion, non-toxic latex stimulated migration/proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro and significantly accelerated wound healing in animal excoriation models compared to chlorhexidine or saline.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Collagen deposition and myofibroblast differentiation are critical factors related to excessive scarring in ocular surgeries. This study evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of rosmarinic acid on rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor- β2. Methods: Primary cultures of rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of rosmarinic acid for 12 h, in the presence and absence of transforming growth factor-β2. After 48 h, the proliferation index of rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts and the differentiation of myofibroblasts were investigated through immunofluorescence staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alpha smooth muscle actin. An automated cell counter and colorimetric metabolic activity assay were used to evaluate cell number and viability. Collagen expression and production were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and hydroxyproline assay, respectively. Results: Unstimulated rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts treated with any concentration of rosmarinic acid exhibited diminished collagen expression (p<0.01) but showed no differences in proliferation index. Transforming growth factor-β2 exposure induced myofibroblast differentiation and increased collagen production. Exposure to rosmarinic acid at 1.0 and 3.0 µM concentrations reduced the proliferation index (p<0.02), as well as the collagen expression and hydroxyproline content (p<0.05). Exposure to 3.0 µM rosmarinic acid reduced viability (p=0.035) in unstimulated rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts and cell numbers (p=0.001) in both stimulated and unstimulated rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblast cultures. Conclusions: Exposure to 1.0 µM rosmarinic acid was noncytotoxic and led to reduced collagen expression and proliferation of stimulated rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts. These findings suggest that rosmarinic acid is a relatively non-injurious anti-fibrotic compound to rabbit Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts, with potential application as an adjunctive agent in ocular procedures, particularly in glaucoma surgeries.
RESUMO Objetivo: A deposição de colágeno e a diferenciação de miofibroblastos são fatores chaves relacionados à cicatrização excessiva em cirurgias oculares. Este estudo avaliou a atividade anti-fibrótica do ácido rosmarínico nos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos estimulados com o fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Métodos: Culturas primárias de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos foram tratadas com várias concentrações de ácido rosmarínico por 12h, na presença e na ausência do fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Após 48h, o índice de proliferação dos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos e a diferenciação dos miofibroblastos foram investigados por coloração por imunofluorescência para proliferação de antígeno nuclear celular e α-actina de músculo liso, respectivamente. Um contador automático de células e um ensaio de atividade metabólica colorimétrica foram utilizados para avaliar o número e a viabilidade das células. A expressão e produção do colágeno foram determinadas por reação quantitativa em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real e ensaio de hidroxiprolina, respectivamente. Resultados: Fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos não estimulados tratados com qualquer concentração de ácido rosmarínico exibiram diminuição de colágeno (p<0,01), mas não mostraram diferenças no índice de proliferação. A exposição ao fator de crescimento transformador-β2 induziu a diferenciação de miofibroblastos e aumentou a produção de colágeno. A exposição ao ácido rosmarínico nas concentrações de 1,0 e 3,0 µM reduziu o índice de proliferação (p<0,02), bem como a expressão de colágeno e a quantificação de hidroxiprolina (p<0.05). A exposição a 3,0 µM de ácido rosmarínico reduziu a viabilidade (p=0,035) de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos não estimulados e o número de células (p=0,001) em culturas de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos estimuladas e não estimuladas. Conclusões: A exposição ao ácido rosmarínico 1,0 µM foi não citotóxica e levou à expressão reduzida de colágeno e menor proliferação de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon estimulados pelo fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Esses achados sugerem que o ácido rosmarínico é um composto antifibrótico relativamente não lesivo aos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos, com potencial aplicação como agente adjuvante em procedimentos oculares, particularmente em cirurgias de glaucoma.
Abstract: Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are life-threatening blistering drug reactions with high incidence of ocular sequela. The term ‘Epidermal Necrolysis’ has been recently used to better describe the full spectrum of the disease that includes Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis at opposite ends, which differ by the extent of body surface area with epidermal detachment. SCORTEN is a mortality prognosis score for ‘Epidermal Necrolysis’ cases that still needed validation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the SCORTEN performance in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the differences in outcomes between acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cohorts. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of AIDS and non-AIDS ‘Epidermal Necrolysis’ cases admitted to a Brazilian reference center from 1990-2014. Results: Five deaths (16.7%) occurred as a consequence of EN in 30 AIDS patients, and seven (17.9%) in 39 non-AIDS patients, relative risk (RR) .92 (p=1.0). SCORTEN showed great performance, with an Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) (ROC) of 0.90 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from .81 to .99. The performance of SCORTEN was better among non- AIDS patients than AIDS patients: AUC non- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome =0.99 (CI 05% 0.96-1.00), AUC acquired immunodeficiency syndrome = 0.74 (CI 95% 0.53-0.95), p=.02. Study Limitations: Heterogeneity of cases, wide variation of systemic corticosteroid doses when used. Conclusion: SCORTEN is valid for the Brazilian population, including among those patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and, as such, its use is recommended for aiding treatment choice in this subgroup of patients.
OBJECTIVES Show that hidden endemic leprosy exists in a municipality of inner São Paulo state (Brazil) with active surveillance actions based on clinical and immunological evaluations. METHODS The study sample was composed by people randomly selected by a dermatologist during medical care in the public emergency department and by active surveillance carried out during two days at a mobile clinic. All subjects received a dermato-neurological examination and blood sampling to determine anti-PGL-I antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS From July to December 2015, 24 new cases of leprosy were diagnosed; all were classified as multibacillary (MB) leprosy, one with severe Lucio's phenomenon. Seventeen (75%) were found with grade-1 or 2 disability at the moment of diagnosis. Anti-PGL-I titer was positive in 31/133 (23.3%) individuals, only 6/24 (25%) were positive in newly diagnosed leprosy cases. CONCLUSIONS During the last ten years before this study, the average new case detection rate (NCDR) in this town was 2.62/100,000 population. After our work, the NCDR was raised to 42.8/100,000. These results indicate a very high number of hidden leprosy cases in this supposedly low endemic area of Brazil.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. METHODS: We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. RESULTS: The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; p<.001). Seropositivity among HC was not significantly associated with their gender and age. There was no statistical difference in the seropositivity rates of HC of index patients with paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy. CONCLUSIONS: Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.
Objective To determine the oxidative stress and the antioxidant and micronutrient profile of patients with multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy before polychemotherapeutic treatment. Methods Thirty control samples and fifty-two serum samples from leprosy patients who attended the dermatology outpatient clinic of a public university hospital were analyzed; 38 of them had multibacillary and 14 paucibacillarty. Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was determined using the thiobarbituric acid reacting substances assay; the antioxidant reduced glutathione was determined using a method based on the quantification of acid-soluble thiol; the antioxidant vitamin E was determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography; the minerals selenium, zinc, copper and magnesium were determined using coupled-mass spectrometry, and the serum phenol I glycolipid antibody was determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the variables quantified in the present study between the different groups, and Pearson's correlation analysis was used to verify the association between these variables and the antibody. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results There was a significant difference in the content of malondialdehyde (p<0.001) and vitamin E (p<0.001) between the groups with multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy (p=0.495 and p=0.920, respectively) and the control groups. Reduced glutathione levels were higher in the control group compared with those of the group with leprosy (p=0.012) and multibacillary leprosy (p=0.001), but did it not differ from that of the paucibacillary group (p=0.920). Reduced glutathione levels did not differ between the multibacillary and paucibacillary groups (p=0.063) either. All minerals were within normal limits, except for magnesium; magnesium deficiency was detected in all groups studied. No correlation was observed between the anti-phenolic glycolipid I antibody and the remaining variables. Conclusion Paucibacillary patients seem to have more pronounced reduced glutathione antioxidant defense, similar to that of healthy individuals. The low vitamin E levels of leprosy patients suggest the benefits of supplementation. The metabolic changes observed did not demonstrate an association with anti-phenolic glycolipid I serology.
Objetivo Avaliar o estresse oxidativo, perfil antioxidante e de micronutrientes em pacientes portadores de hanseníase multibacilar e paucibacilar antes do tratamento poliquimioterápico. Métodos Analisaram-se 52 amostras de soro de pacientes portadores de hanseníase - 38 multibacilares e 14 paucibacilares -, usuários do ambulatório de dermatologia de um hospital público universitário, além de 30 amostras controles. Quantificaram-se marcador de peroxidação lipídica malondialdeído pelo método de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, antioxidante glutationa reduzida pelo método baseado na quantificação de tiol solúvel em ácido, antioxidante vitamina E por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, minerais selênio, zinco, cobre, magnésio por espectrometria de massa com fonte plasma acoplado, e sorologia do anticorpo glicolipídio fenólico I pelo método Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Foi utilizado teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney para comparar as variáveis quantificadas neste estudo entre os diferentes grupos, e correlação de Pearson para verificar associação dessas variáveis com o anticorpo. O critério de significância adotado foi de p<0,05. Resultados Houve diferença significativa para o malondialdeído (p<0,001) e vitamina E (p<0,001) no grupo controle comparado aos grupos com hanseníase, multibacilar e paucibacilar. No entanto, essas mesmas variáveis não diferiram entre os grupos multibacilar e paucibacilar (p=0,495 e p=0,920 respectivamente). A glutationa reduzida foi superior no grupo controle em relação ao grupo com hanseníase (p=0,012) e multibacilar (p=0,001), no entanto não diferiu do grupo paucibacilar (p=0,920). Quando comparada com os multibacilares e paucibacilares, a glutationa reduzida também não diferiu (p=0,063). Quanto aos minerais, todos se apresentaram dentro da normalidade, exceto o magnésio, cujos níveis foram deficientes em todos os pacientes do estudo. Não foi possível observar correlação do anticorpo glicolipídio fenólico I com as demais variáveis. Conclusão Os pacientes paucibacilares parecem possuir maior defesa antioxidante de glutationa reduzida, semelhante à de indivíduos saudáveis. Baixos níveis de vitamina E nos pacientes com hanseníase são sugestivos dos benefícios de suplementação. As alterações metabólicas observadas não evidenciaram relação com a sorologia do glicolipídio fenólico I.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of cosmetics and demonstrate its viability through cutaneous keratinocytes' proliferative capacity up to 75 days in culture. METHODS: The skin explants obtained from surgeries were cultured in CO2-humid incubator. After 1, 7, 30 and 75 days in culture, skin fragments were harvested for analysis with histomorphological exam (HE staining) on all days of follow-up and immunohistochemistry for Ck5/6, Ck10 and Ki-67 only on the 75th day. RESULTS: On the 7th day, the epidermis was perfect in the dermoepidermal junction, showing the viability of the model. On the 30th day, the epidermis was thicker, with fewer layers on the stratum corneum, although the cutaneous structure was unaltered. On the 75th day, the skin became thinner but the dermoepidermal junctions were preserved and epidermal proliferation was maintained. After the 75th day on culture, the skin was similar to normal skin, expressing keratinocytes with Ck5/6 on supra-basal layers; Ck10 on differentiated layers; and viability could be assessed by the positivity of basal cells by Ki-67. CONCLUSION: The hOSEC model seems a good alternative to animal testing; it can be used as a preclinical test analogous to clinical human skin test with similar effectiveness and viability proven by immunohistological analyses.
BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that phototherapy promotes the healing of cutaneous wounds. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of phototherapy on healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats. METHODS: Forty rats, 20 nourished plus 20 others rendered marasmus with undernourishment, were assigned to four equal groups: nourished sham, nourished Light Emitting Diode treated, undernourished sham and undernourished Light Emitting Diode treated. In the two treated groups, two 8-mm punch wounds made on the dorsum of each rat were irradiated three times per week with 3 J/cm2 sq cm of combined 660 and 890nm light; wounds in the other groups were not irradiated. Wounds were evaluated with digital photography and image analysis, either on day 7 or day 14, with biopsies obtained on day 14 for histological studies. RESULTS: Undernourishment retarded the mean healing rate of the undernourished sham wounds (p < 0.01), but not the undernourished Light emission diode treated wounds, which healed significantly faster (p < 0.001) and as fast as the two nourished groups. Histological analysis showed a smaller percentage of collagen in the undernourished sham group compared with the three other groups, thus confirming our photographic image analysis data. CONCLUSION: Phototherapy reverses the adverse healing effects of undernourishment. Similar beneficial effects may be achieved in patients with poor nutritional status.
To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (∆CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (∆TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ∆CSAs and ∆TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ∆CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ∆CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ∆TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ∆TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ∆CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ∆TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (∆CSAs and ∆TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy.
Leprosy in children is correlated with community-level factors, including the recent presence of disease and active foci of transmission in the community. We performed clinical and serological examinations of 1,592 randomly selected school children (SC) in a cross-sectional study of eight hyperendemic municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Sixty-three (4%) SC, with a mean age of 13.3 years (standard deviation = 2.6), were diagnosed with leprosy and 777 (48.8%) were seropositive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I). Additionally, we evaluated 256 house-hold contacts (HHCs) of the students diagnosed with leprosy; 24 (9.4%) HHC were also diagnosed with leprosy and 107 (41.8%) were seropositive. The seroprevalence of anti-PGL-I was significantly higher amongst girls, students from urban areas and students from public schools (p < 0.0001). Forty-five (71.4%) new cases detected amongst SC were classified as paucibacillary and 59 (93.6%) patients did not demonstrate any degree of physical disability at diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that there is a high rate of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst children in the Amazon Region. The advantages of school surveys in hyperendemic areas include identifying leprosy patients at an early stage when they show no physical disabilities, preventing the spread of the infection in the community and breaking the chain of transmission.
BACKGROUND: The vegetal biomembrane has been used to treat cutaneous ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the vegetal biomembrane on the chronic venous ulcers treatment compared to treatment with collagenase cream. METHODS: Fourteen patients were selected to be treated with vegetal biomembrane and 7 with Fibrase®(CONTROL), followed clinically and photographically by the Wound Healing Index by ImageJ during 120 days and biopsied on the 1st and 30th days for histological examination. RESULTS: The vegetal biomembrane was better in promoting healing of the ulcers, especially on the inflammatory phase, confirmed by abundant exudation and wound debridement than the CONTROL group, on the 30th day. There was a greater tendency to angiogenesis followed by re-epithelialization with highest wound healing index on the 90th and 120th days. CONCLUSION: A combined analysis of clinical and histopathological findings suggests that the vegetal biomembrane acted as a factor inducing wound healing, especially on the inflammatory phase, confirmed by abundant exudation of the lesions promoting the transformation of the microenvironment of the chronic venous ulcers, and also stimulating angiogenesis and subsequent re-epithelialization.
FUNDAMENTOS: A biomembrana vegetal tem sido usada para tratamento de úlceras cutâneas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a ação da biomembrana vegetal no tratamento de úlceras venosas crônicas, comparando-a ao tratamento à base de colagenase. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 14 pacientes tratados com biomembrana vegetal e sete com Fibrase® (grupo controle), acompanhados clínico-fotograficamente pelo índice de cicatrização das úlceras (ICU) por 120 dias, por meio do software ImageJ, e biopsiados no primeiro e 30º dias para estudo histopatológico. RESULTADOS: A biomembrana vegetal foi superior em relação ao controle na cicatrização das úlceras no 30º dia, especialmente na fase inflamatória, confirmada pela exsudação abundante e pelo desbridamento. Houve tendência superior à angiogênese seguida de reepitelização com maiores ICUs no 90º e 120º dias. CONCLUSÃO: A análise conjunta dos achados clínicos e histopatológicos sugere que a biomembrana vegetal atuou como um fator indutor da cicatrização, especialmente na fase inflamatória, confirmada pela exsudação abundante das lesões, promovendo a transformação do microambiente das úlceras venosas crônicas e estimulando a angiogênese e a posterior reepitelização.
BACKGROUND: The natural biomembrane of latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis has been used as a dressing for skin ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how safe the natural biomembrane is in relation to hypersensitivity to latex when used as a dressing. METHODS: We selected patients with skin ulcers, forming the following groups: control - low occupational exposure to latex (n = 17); latex-exposed control - high occupational exposure (n = 14); ulcerated, using the natural biomembrane (n = 13); ulcerated control, not using the natural biomembrane (n = 14); and new cases (n = 9), assessed before and after 3 months of using the natural biomembrane. All patients underwent clinical and epidemiological evaluation for latex hypersensitivity and specific IgE (UniCap®), and the control and latex-exposed control groups underwent the patch test. RESULTS: Hypersensitivity was positive in 64.7% of the patients in the control group, 71.4% of the patients in the latex-exposed control group, 61.5% of the ulcerated using the natural biomembrane, 35.7% of the ulcerated control, and only 22 , 2% of the new cases. In the patch test of the control and latex-exposed control groups, only one individual in the control group (low contact) showed erythema in the first reading, which became negative in the second. The mean contact with latex in the latex-exposed control group was 3.42 hours / day. In the fluoroimmunoenzymatic assay, most of the sera was classified as zero (range 0-6). No serum was rated above 2, which is not considered significant for hypersensitivity (classification > 4). CONCLUSION: The natural biomembrane proved to be safe as a dressing, for it did not induce hypersensitivity reactions among the volunteers who underwent the patch test or among users of the natural biomembrane, as it was clinically and immunologically demonstrated by IgE levels.
FUNDAMENTOS: A biomembrana vegetal do látex da seringueira Hevea brasiliensis tem sido usada como curativo para úlceras cutâneas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a segurança da biomembrana vegetal como curativo em relação à hipersensibilidade ao látex. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes com úlceras cutâneas constituindo-se os grupos: controle - baixa exposição profissional ao látex (n=17); alta exposição profissional (n=14); ulcerados em uso da biomembrana vegetal (n=13); ulcerados-controle sem uso da biomembrana vegetal (n=14) e casos novos (n=9), submetidos à avaliação pré e após 3 meses de uso da biomembrana vegetal. Todos foram submetidos à avaliação clínico-epidemiológica quanto à hipersensibilidade ao látex e IgE específica (UniCap®), e os grupos controle e controle exposto ao látex ao "patch test". RESULTADOS: A história de hipersensibilidade foi positiva em 64,7% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, 71,4% do controle exposto ao látex, 61,5% dos ulcerados em uso da biomembrana vegetal, 35,7% dos ulcerados-controle, e apenas 22,2% no grupo casos novos. Ao teste de contato dos grupos controle e controle exposto ao látex, apenas um indivíduo do grupo C (baixo contato) apresentou eritema na primeira leitura, negativando-se na segunda. A média de contato com látex no grupo-controle exposto ao látex foi de 3,42 horas/dia. No ensaio fluoroimunoenzimático, a grande maioria dos soros foi classificada como zero (variação 0 a 6). Nenhum soro recebeu classificação acima de 2, não sendo considerada classificação significante para hipersensibilidade (classificação > 4). CONCLUSÃO: A biomembrana vegetal mostrou-se segura como curativo, pois não induziu reações de hipersensibilidade entre os voluntários submetidos ao "patch test", nem entre os usuários da biomembrana vegetal, como demonstrado clinica e imunologicamente pela dosagem de IgE.
BACKGROUND: The skin requires adequate levels of nutrients to function properly. OBJECTIVE: To analyze skin trophism in well-nourished and undernourished rats using two models of malnutrition. METHODS: In the marasmus model, 60 Wistar rats were kept on a controlled diet, 30 being randomly selected to receive half the established diet for 60 days. In the gelatin model, 60 rats were used, 30 of which received a diet consisting of poor quality protein (gelatin) for 30 days. The nutritional status of the animals was evaluated according to body mass index, clinical signs and serum albumin measurement. After the period of malnutrition, histology was performed on the animals' skin to analyze the thickness of the dermis and epidermis using the Leica Application Suite software. Collagen was analyzed on slides stained with Gömöri trichrome using the ImageJ software program. RESULTS: The body mass index of the malnourished animals in the marasmus and gelatin groups was significantly lower than that of the well-nourished animals in the two groups (p<0.0001 in both models). With respect to serum albumin, there was no difference between the groups in either of the two models. In relation to the histological analysis of skin thickness, the dermis of the malnourished animals was significantly thinner compared to that of the well-nourished animals (p<0.0001 in both models). The percentage of collagen was lower in the malnourished animals compared to the well-nourished animals (p<0.0005 and p<0.003 in the marasmus and gelatin model, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Skin thickness measurements were lower in the malnourished animals in both models, and this finding was histologically confirmed by the lower percentage of collagen, showing the negative effect of malnutrition on skin trophism
FUNDAMENTOS: A pele, para exercer suas funções, necessita de níveis adequados de nutrientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar o trofismo cutâneo de ratos nutridos e desnutridos por meio de dois modelos de desnutrição. MÉTODOS: No Modelo Marasmo, utilizaram-se 60 ratos Wistar em controle dietético, dos quais 30 foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber metade da dieta diária durante 60 dias. No Modelo Gelatina, empregaram-se 60 ratos, dos quais 30 receberam dieta associada a proteína de baixa qualidade (gelatina) durante 30 dias. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional dos animais por meio da massa corporal, dos sinais clínicos e da dosagem de albumina sérica. Após o período de desnutrição, fez-se a histologia da pele dos animais para análise da espessura da derme e epiderme com o software Leica Application Suite; nas lâminas coradas com tricrômio de Gomori, analisou-se a colagênese com o software ImageJ. RESULTADOS: A massa corporal dos animais desnutridos pelo marasmo e gelatina foi significativamente menor (p<0,0001 e p<0,0001) do que a dos grupos nutridos. Quanto à albumina sérica, não houve diferença entre os grupos nos dois modelos. Em relação à análise histológica da espessura da pele, os desnutridos apresentaram a derme significativamente menos espessa em comparação aos nutridos (p<0,0001 e p<0,0001). No que respeita à colagênese, os grupos desnutridos apresentaram menores percentuais de colágeno em relação aos nutridos (p<0,0005 e p<0,003). CONCLUSÕES: Os animais desnutridos pelos dois modelos apresentaram diminuição na espessura dérmica, confirmada histologicamente pelo menor percentual de colágeno, mostrando a influência negativa da desnutrição no trofismo cutâneo
This study evaluated the use of phototherapy in the healing of mixed leg ulcers in two diabetic patients (type 2) with arterial hypertension. The device had probe 1 (one 660nm LED, 5mW) applied in 3 ulcers and probe 2 (32 890nm LEDs associated with 4 660nm LEDs, 500mW) in 6 ulcers. After asepsis, ulcers were treated with probes to 3 J/cm2, 30sec per point, twice a week, followed by topical daily dressing with 1% silver sulphadiazine during 12 weeks. The following analyses of ulcers with software Image J showed that probe 2 presented mean healing rates of 0.6; 0.7 and 0.9, whereas probe 1 had 0.2;0.4 and 0.6 at 30, 60 and 90 days, espectively. Phototherapy accelerated wound healing of leg ulcers in diabetic patients.
Avaliou-se a fototerapia na cicatrização de úlceras de perna (UP) mistas em dois pacientes diabéticos (tipo 2), hipertensos. O aparelho apresentava sonda 1 (S1) (1 LED de 660nm, 5mW) aplicado em 3 UP e sonda 2 (S2) (32 LEDs de 890nm e 4 LEDs de 660nm, 500mW) em 6 UP. Após antissepsia,úlceras foram tratadas com sondas a 3J/cm2, 30seg, 2x/semana seguido pelo curativo diário com sulfadiazina de prata a 1% por 12 semanas. Pela análise com software Image J®, as UP com S2 tiveram índices de cicatrização médios de 0,6; 0,7 e 0,9 enquanto S1 foi de 0,2; 0,4 e 0,6 no 30º, 60º e 90º dias, respectivamente. A fototerapia acelerou a cicatrização das úlceras de perna em pacientes diabéticos.