Abstract Calcitriol antiproliferative effects were observed in xenografts of breast cancer cell lines, however they were not yet investigated in tumorgrafts, consisting of freshly collected breast cancer samples xenografted into animals. Objectives To establish a tumorgraft model, from freshly collected breast cancer samples, which were directly implanted in nude mice, to study calcitriol effects. Methods Breast cancer samples collected from 12 patients were orthotopically implanted into nude mice. Animals were treated with weekly intratumoral injections of calcitriol 3 μg/Kg, which was previously shown to induce peak serum calcitriol levels in the predicted therapeutic range. Results Success engraftment rate was 25%. Tumorgrafts were established from aggressive (HER2 positive or histological grade 3) highly proliferative samples and original tumor characteristics were preserved. Calcitriol highly induced its target gene, CYP24A1, indicating that the genomic vitamin D pathway is active in tumorgrafts. However, no differences in the expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers (BrdU incorporation, Ki67, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, BCL2 expression) were observed in these highly proliferative tumor samples. Conclusions Tumorgrafts seem a promising model to explore other calcitriol doses and regimens, considering the heterogeneity of the disease and microenvironment interactions.
Resumo Os efeitos antiproliferativos de calcitriol foram observados em xenotransplantes de linhagens celulares de câncer de mama, entretanto, não foram ainda investigados em enxertos tumorais, consistindo de implantes em animais de amostras de câncer de mama recém-coletadas. Objetivos Estabelecer modelo de enxerto tumoral, a partir de amostra de câncer de mama recém-coletada e diretamente implantada em camundongos nude, para estudar o efeito do calcitriol. Métodos Amostras de câncer de mama de 12 pacientes foram implantadas ortotopicamente em camundongos nude. Os animais foram tratados com injeção intratumoral semanal de calcitriol 3 μg/Kg, a qual foi previamente associada com indução de pico sérico de calcitriol dentro do intervalo de nível terapêutico. Resultados A taxa de sucesso de pega do enxerto foi de 25%. Os enxertos tumorais foram estabelecidos de tumores agressivos com alta taxa de proliferação (HER2 positivo ou grau histológico 3) e as características do tumor original foram preservadas. O calcitriol induziu fortemente a expressão do gene alvo, CYP24A1, indicando que a via genômica da vitamina D está ativa nos enxertos tumorais, entretanto, não se observou diferenças na expressão de marcadores de proliferação e apoptose (incorporação de BrdU, expressão de Ki67, CDKN1A, CDKN1B e BCL2) nestas amostras altamente proliferativas. Conclusões Os enxertos tumorais parecem ser um modelo promissor para explorar outros esquemas e doses de calcitriol, considerando a heterogeneidade da doença e interações com o microambiente.
Accidental transmission of Chagas' disease to man by blood transfusion is a serious problem in Latin-America. This paper describes the testing of several synthetic, semi-synthetic, and natural compounds for their activity against blood trypomastigotes in vitro at 4-C. The compounds embody several types of chemical structures: benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, anthracenequinone, phenanthrenequinone, imidazole, piperazine, quinoline, xanthene, and simple benzenic and naphthalenic derivates. Some of them are for the first time tested against Trypanosoma cruzi. The toxic effect these compounds on this parasite was done by two quite distinct sets of experiments. In one set, the compounds were added to infected blood as ethanolic solution. In this situation the most active one was a furan-1, 2-naphthoquinone, in the same range as gentian violet, a new fact to be considered in the assessment of structure-activity relationships in this class of compounds. In other set, we tentatively evaluated the biological activity of water insoluble compounds by adding them in a pure form without solvent into infected blood. In this way some appear to be very active and it was postulated that the effectiveness of such compounds must result from interactions between them and specific blood components.