Objective: The Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI) is a scale that uses a non-conventional strategy to assess melancholia status based on prototypic symptoms and illness course variables. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the first translation of this instrument in a non-English-speaking population. Methods: A sample comprising 106 Brazilian outpatients with depression was evaluated simultaneously with the Brazilian version of the self-rated SMPI (SMPI-SR) and clinician-rated SMPI (SMPI-CR). The kappa coefficient and t test were used to evaluate concurrent validity vs. DSM-IV, CORE system, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-6 item (HAM-D6), and HAM-D17 assignments to a melancholic or non-melancholic class. The prevalence of melancholia as well as sensitivity and specificity were calculated across instruments. Results: The prevalence of melancholia was highest using DSM-IV criteria (56.6%). The kappa agreement between SMPI-CR and DSM-IV melancholia assignment was moderate (kappa 0.44, p ≤ 0.001). SMPI-CR-assigned melancholic patients had significantly higher CORE, HAM-D17, and HAM-D6 scores. The test-retest consistency values for the SMPI were modest at best, and somewhat superior for the CR version. Conclusion: The Brazilian SMPI-CR presented satisfactory psychometric properties (which were superior to those of the SMPI-SR), and therefore appears to be a useful option for identifying melancholia and studying its causes and optimal treatments.
Abstract Introduction Depression is possibly not a single syndrome but rather comprises several subtypes. DSM-5 proposes a melancholia specifier with phenotypic characteristics that could be associated with clinical progression, biological markers or therapeutic response. The Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI) is a prototypic scale aimed to improve the diagnosis of melancholia. So far, there is only an English version of the instrument available. The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation of the English version of the SMPI into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the self-report (SMPI-SR) and clinician-rated (SMPI-CR) versions into Brazilian Portuguese were done following recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). This guideline includes the following steps: preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, back translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, debriefing results review, proofreading and final report. Results The Brazilian Portuguese versions of the SMPI were well-accepted by respondents. Changes in about two-thirds of the items were considered necessary to obtain the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the SMPI. Conclusions Both versions of the SMPI are now available in Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument could become an important option to enhance studies on melancholia in Portuguese-speaking samples.
Objective: To test the reliability and the discriminant and convergent validity of the abbreviated Brazilian Portuguese World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Instrument – Spirituality, Religion, and Personal Beliefs module (WHOQOL-SRPB BREF). Methods: In a sample of 404 individuals, we applied a general questionnaire, the WHOQOL-BREF, the long-form SRPB, the Brief Religious-Spiritual Coping Scale (RCOPE), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Priority was given to the 9-item SRPB assessment: its unidimensionality was tested through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the 9-item SRPB assessment indicated an adjusted model with acceptable fit to data. In the Rasch analysis, general fit measures showed adequate performance. The 9-item SRPB assessment showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.85), and could differentiate (discriminant validity) between religious and atheist/agnostic respondents (mean = 74.7±14.1 and 56.8±15.5, respectively; t = 6.37; degrees of freedom [df] = 402; p < 0.01) and between non-depressed and depressed respondents (mean = 76.5±12.9 and 67.1±16.5; t = 5.57; df = 190.5; p < 0.01). Correlations (convergent validity) were significant with the positive-RCOPE subscale (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and the WHOQOL-BREF domains (Pearson coefficient ranging between 0.24 and 0.49; p < 0.01), but were in the negative direction with the negative-RCOPE subscale (r = -0.10, p < 0.05). Correlation with the long-form SRPB domain (r = 0.934) was almost perfect. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese 9-item SRPB has good psychometric properties and confirmed the findings of the long-form Brazilian Portuguese version and the abbreviated English version.
Objective: To test the psychometric properties of the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index in a Brazilian sample. Methods: The sample consisted of 151 patients and 174 healthy controls (n=325). Several psychometric properties were tested. Results: Reliability showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.81). The measure showed good discriminant validity between patients and healthy controls (mean1 = 3.32, SD1 = 0.70; mean2 = 3.77, SD2 = 0.63, t = 6.12, p < 0.001). Convergent validity showed significant correlations (p < 0.001) between the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index and all domains of the WHOQOL-Bref (overall r = 0.47; general health r = 0.54; physical r = 0.69; psychological r = 0.62; social relationship r = 0.55; environment r = 0.55) and between the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index and the domains of the SF-36, except for the social domain (p = 0.38). On Rasch analysis of unidimensionality, general fit measures showed adequate performance. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index also showed good fit on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (chi-square = 18.46, degrees of freedom [df] = 15; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.03; goodness of fit index [gfi] = 0.99; root mean square residual [RMR] = 0.03; p = 24). Conclusion: The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index showed good psychometric properties. It is a reliable quality of life measure that can be used in Brazilian populations.
Objective: There have been significant reductions in numbers of psychiatric beds and length of stay (LOS) worldwide, making LOS in psychiatric beds an interesting outcome. The objective of this study was to find factors measurable on admission that would predict LOS in the acute psychiatric setting. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study. Results: Overall, 385 subjects were included. The median LOS was 25 days. In the final model, six variables explained 14.6% of the variation in LOS: not having own income, psychiatric admissions in the preceding 2 years, high Clinical Global Impression and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores, diagnosis of schizophrenia, and history of attempted suicide. All variables were associated with longer LOS, apart from history of attempted suicide. Conclusions: Identifying patients who will need to stay longer in psychiatric beds remains a challenge. Improving knowledge about determinants of LOS could lead to improvements in the quality of care in hospital psychiatry.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. Methods: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Results: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. Conclusions: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. Clinical trial registration: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097
Resumo Fundamento: A espiritualidade pode influenciar a maneira com que os pacientes lidam com sua doença. Objetivos: Avaliamos a possibilidade de a espiritualidade influenciar a adesão ao tratamento de pacientes ambulatoriais com insuficiência cardíaca. Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes ambulatoriais com insuficiência cardíaca, cuja adesão ao tratamento multidisciplinar foi avaliada. Os pacientes foram avaliados sobre qualidade de vida, depressão, religiosidade e espiritualidade, utilizando questionários validados. Foram obtidas correlações entre adesão e variáveis psicossociais de interesse. Modelos de regressão logística exploraram preditores independentes de adesão. Resultados: Cento e trinta pacientes (idade 60 ± 13 anos; 67% masculinos) foram entrevistados. Observou-se adequado escore de adesão em 38,5% dos pacientes. Nem a depressão ou a religiosidade foram correlacionados à adesão, quando avaliados separadamente. É interessante notar que quando a espiritualidade foi avaliada por ambos, o somatório total de score (r = 0,26; p = 0,003) e os domínios específicos, ela estava positivamente correlacionada à adesão. Por fim, a combinação de espiritualidade, religiosidade e crenças pessoais mostrou-se um preditor independente de adesão quando ajustado às características demográficas, clínicas e a instrumentos psicossociais. Conclusão: Espiritualidade, religiosidade e crenças pessoais foram as únicas variáveis consistentemente associadas à adesão em relação à medicação em uma coorte de pacientes ambulatoriais com insuficiência cardíaca. Nossos dados sugerem que abordar adequadamente esses aspectos no cuidado com o paciente pode auxiliar a melhorar o padrão de adesão no complexo tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca.
Abstract Background: Spirituality may influence how patients cope with their illness. Objectives: We assessed whether spirituality may influence adherence to management of outpatients with heart failure. Methods: Cross sectional study enrolling consecutive ambulatory heart failure patients in whom adherence to multidisciplinary treatment was evaluated. Patients were assessed for quality of life, depression, religiosity and spirituality utilizing validated questionnaires. Correlations between adherence and psychosocial variables of interest were obtained. Logistic regression models explored independent predictors of adherence. Results: One hundred and thirty patients (age 60 ± 13 years; 67% male) were interviewed. Adequate adherence score was observed in 38.5% of the patients. Neither depression nor religiosity was correlated to adherence, when assessed separately. Interestingly, spirituality, when assessed by both total score sum (r = 0.26; p = 0.003) and by all specific domains, was positively correlated to adherence. Finally, the combination of spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs was an independent predictor of adherence when adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics and psychosocial instruments. Conclusion: Spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs were the only variables consistently associated with compliance to medication in a cohort of outpatients with heart failure. Our data suggest that adequately addressing these aspects on patient’s care may lead to an improvement in adherence patterns in the complex heart failure management.
Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect) with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation). Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.
Objective: To describe and evaluate the response and predictors of remission during inpatient treatment in a psychiatric unit in a general hospital based on symptomatology, functionality, and quality of life (QoL). Methods: Patients were admitted to a psychiatric unit in a tertiary general hospital in Brazil from June 2011 to December 2013 and included in the study if they met two of the severe mental illness (SMI) criteria: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) ≤ 50 and duration of service contact ≥ 2 years. Patients were assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Severity Scale , GAF, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument – Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref), and specific diagnostic scales. Results: A total of 239 patients were included. BPRS mean scores were 25.54±11.37 at admission and 10.96±8.11 at discharge (p < 0.001). Patients with manic episodes (odds ratio: 4.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-14.30; p = 0.03) were more likely to achieve remission (CGI ≤ 2 at discharge) than those with depressive episodes. Mean length of stay was 28.95±19.86 days. All QoL domains improved significantly in the whole sample. Conclusion: SMI patients had marked improvements in symptomatic and functional measures during psychiatric hospitalization. Patients with manic episodes had higher chance of remission according to the CGI.
Introduction: The Temperament & Personality Questionnaire (T&P) is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate personality styles overrepresented in patients with depression. This report briefly describes the translation and adaptation of the T&P into Brazilian Portuguese.Methods: The procedures, which included 10 steps, followed guidelines for the adaptation of self-report instruments defined by the International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation.Results: The author of the original T&P questionnaire authorized and participated in the translation conducted by the authors and independent native speakers. Evaluation of the translated questionnaire indicated that only minor adjustments were required in the Portuguese version.Conclusions: The Brazilian version of T&P, translated and adapted following a rigid standardized process, is available for use free of charge and may be especially useful in pursuing links between personality styles and depressive conditions.
Introdução: O Temperament & Personality Questionnaire (T&P) é um instrumento de autorrelato criado para avaliar quais estilos de personalidade têm maior representação em pacientes com depressão. Este trabalho descreve brevemente o processo de tradução e adaptação do T&P para o português brasileiro.Métodos: A tradução e a adaptação cultural se desenvolveram em 10 passos e seguiram as diretrizes para adaptação de instrumentos de autorrelato definidas por força-tarefa do ISPOR (International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research).Resultados: O autor do questionário T&P original autorizou e participou da tradução feita pelos autores e por falantes nativos independentes. A avaliação do questionário traduzido mostrou que apenas pequenos ajustes foram necessários na versão em português.Conclusões: A versão brasileira do questionário T&P, traduzido e adaptado seguindo um rígido processo padronizado, está disponível gratuitamente e pode ser de grande utilidade na pesquisa sobre as relações entre estilos de personalidade e quadros depressivos.
Objective: To investigate whether internalizing disorders are associated with quality of life (QoL) in adolescents, even after accounting for shared risk factors. Methods: The sample comprised 102 adolescents from a community cross-sectional study with an oversampling of anxious subjects. Risk factors previously associated with QoL were assessed and divided into five blocks organized hierarchically from proximal to distal sets of risk factors. Results: Multiple regression analysis yielded a hierarchical model accounting for 72% of QoL variance. All blocks were consistently associated with QoL (p < 0.05), accounting for the following percentages of variance: 12% for demographics; 5.2% for family environment; 37.8% for stressful events; 10% for nutritional and health habits; and 64.2% for dimensional psychopathological symptoms or 22.8% for psychiatric diagnoses (dichotomous). Although most of the QoL variance attributed to internalizing symptoms was explained by the four proximal blocks in the hierarchical model (43.2%), about 21% of the variance was independently associated with internalizing symptoms/diagnoses. Conclusions: QoL is associated with several aspects of adolescent life that were largely predicted by our hierarchical model. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that internalizing disorders and internalizing symptoms in adolescents have a high impact on QoL and deserve proper clinical attention.
OBJECTIVE: To test some psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research (YQOL-R) in a community sample of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional community study conducted in six schools of the catchment area of a family health unit. From an original population of 2,754 students from 10 to 17 years old, we randomly selected 419 to answer the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the YQOL-R. We tested reliability, known group differences (using anxiety symptoms and bullying involvement), and factor structure. RESULTS: The YQOL-R showed a good internal consistency and had an adequate and expected known group differences with both bullying and anxiety. The factor structure of the conceptual model was partially supported by our analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the YQOL-R showed sufficiently good psychometric properties. Further studies are needed in order to better investigate alternative configurations of the factor structure.
OBJETIVO: Testar algumas propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research (YQOL-R) em uma amostra comunitária de adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal comunitário realizado em seis escolas localizadas na área de abrangência de uma unidade de saúde da família. De uma população original de 2.754 estudantes com idade entre 10 e 17 anos, selecionamos aleatoriamente 419 para responder à versão brasileira do YQOL-R. Testamos a confiabilidade, as diferenças já conhecidas entre os grupos (utilizando sintomas de ansiedade e envolvimento em episódios de bullying) e a estrutura fatorial. RESULTADOS: O YQOL-R apresentou boa consistência interna, e as diferenças já conhecidas entre os grupos mostraram-se adequadas e estiveram dentro do esperado tanto com relação ao bullying quanto à ansiedade. A estrutura fatorial do modelo conceitual foi em parte fundamentada por nossa análise. CONCLUSÕES: A versão brasileira do YQOL-R apresentou propriedades psicométricas suficientemente boas. São necessários mais estudos a fim de melhor investigar configurações alternativas da estrutura fatorial.