The seston of the small, shallow, and tropical lake Monte Alegre was tested for quantity and quality for cladocerans by growth bioassays, which were carried out in spring (Daphnia gessneri and Moina micrura), summer (D. gessneri, M. micrura, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Simocephalus mixtus), and winter (D. gessneri and D. ambigua). Cohorts of newborns originating from ovigerous females collected in the lake or from laboratory cultures were submitted, at a room temperature of 23ºC to the following treatments: (1) the chlorophytes Ankistrodesmus falcatus and/or Scenedesmus spinosus; (2) lake seston; and (3) lake seston + chlorophytes. Growth rate, clutch size, and fecundity were evaluated. Seston alone was not the best food for promoting cladoceran growth. There were seasonal differences in food quantity and quality with spring and summer seston being better for growth than that of the winter. Adding chlorophytes to the seston increased clutch size and fecundity for most species in summer and winter, but not in spring. Energy limitation seems to be the most important factor influencing cladoceran growth in summer and especially in winter.
O séston do lago Monte Alegre, um lago tropical pequeno e raso, foi testado em relação à quantidade e qualidade para os cladóceros por meio de experimentos de crescimento realizados na primavera (Daphnia gessneri e Moina micrura), no verão (D. gessneri, M. micrura, Ceriodaphnia cornuta e Simocephalus mixtus) e no inverno (D. gessneri e D. ambigua). Coortes de recém-nascidos oriundos de fêmeas ovígeras coletadas no lago ou de culturas de laboratório foram submetidas à temperatura de 23ºC aos seguintes tratamentos: (1) as clorofíceas Ankistrodesmus falcatus e/ou Scenedesmus spinosus, (2) séston do lago e (3) séston + clorofíceas. Foram avaliados a taxa de crescimento, o tamanho da ninhada e a fecundidade. O séston sozinho não foi o melhor alimento para promover o crescimento dos cladóceros. Houve diferenças sazonais quanto à quantidade e à qualidade do alimento, sendo o séston da primavera e o do verão melhores para promover o crescimento que o do inverno. A adição de clorofíceas ao séston aumentou o tamanho da ninhada e a fecundidade para a maioria das espécies no verão e no inverno, mas não na primavera. A limitação de energia parece ser o fator mais importante para o crescimento de cladóceros no verão e, especialmente, no inverno.
The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1) compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1). Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively) compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively). Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals) and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.