Abstract The oviduct is an important reproductive structure that connects the ovary to the uterus and takes place to important events such as oocyte final maturation, fertilization and early embryonic development. Thus, gametes and embryo can be directly influenced by the oviductal microenvironment composed by epithelial cells such secretory and ciliated cells and oviductal fluid. The oviduct composition is anatomically dynamic and is under ovarian hormones control. The oviductal fluid provides protection, nourishment and transport to gametes and embryo and allows interaction to oviductal epithelial cells. All these functions together allows the oviduct to provides the ideal environment to the early reproductive events. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological nanoparticles that mediates cell communication and are present at oviductal fluid and plays an important role in gametes/embryo - oviductal cells communication. This review will present the ability of the oviducts based on its dynamic and systemic changes during reproductive events, as well as the contribution of EVs in this process.
Abstract The transforming growth factors beta (TGFβ) are local factors produced by ovarian cells which, after binding to their receptors, regulate follicular deviation and ovulation. However, their regulation and function during corpus luteum (CL) regression has been poorly investigated. The present study evaluated the mRNA regulation of some TGFβ family ligands and their receptors in the bovine CL during induced luteolysis in vivo. On day 10 of the estrous cycle, cows received an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) and luteal samples were obtained from separate groups of cows (n= 4-5 cows per time-point) at 0, 2, 12, 24 or 48 h after treatment. Since TGF beta family comprises more than 30 ligands, we focused in some candidates genes such as activin receptors (ACVR-1A, -1B, -2A, -2B) AMH, AMHR2, BMPs (BMP-1, -2, -3, -4, -6 and -7), BMP receptors (BMPR-1A, -1B and -2), inhibin subunits (INH-A, -BA, -BB) and betaglycan (TGFBR3). The mRNA levels of BMP4, BMP6 and INHBA were higher at 2 h after PGF administration (P<0.05) in comparison to 0 h. The relative mRNA abundance of BMP1, BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP6, ACVR1B, INHBA and INHBB was upregulated up to 12 h post PGF (P<0.05). On the other hand, TGFBR3 mRNA that codes for a reservoir of ligands that bind to TGF-beta receptors, was lower at 48 h. In conclusion, findings from this study demonstrated that genes encoding several TGFβ family members are expressed in a time-specific manner after PGF administration.