There is an ongoing discussion regarding abdominal muscle (AbM) and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) synergism. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the cocontraction between AbMs and PFMs in women with or without pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). The following databases were searched up to December 21, 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PEDro and CENTRAL. We included any study that assessed the cocontraction between PFMs and AbMs in women with and without PFD. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles and extracted data. The outcomes were extracted and analyzed as continuous variables with random effect models. Twenty studies were included. A meta-analysis did not show differences in women with and without PFD. However, a sensitivity analysis suggested cocontraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) during PFM contraction in healthy women (standardized mean difference (SMD) –1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) −1.90 to −0.14], P=0.02; I2= not applicable; very low quality of evidence). Women with PFD during contraction of PFMs showed cocontraction of the obliquus internus (OI) (SMD 1.10 [95% CI 0.27 to 1.94], P=0.01; I2= not applicable; very low quality of evidence), and obliquus externus (OE) (SMD 2.08 [95% CI 1.10 to 3.06], P<0.0001; I2 = not applicable; very low quality of evidence). Increased cocontraction of the TrA may be associated with maximal contraction of PFMs in women without PFD. On the other hand, there is likely an increased cocontraction with the OI and OE in women with PFD.
ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This systematic review compared reiki and prayer with drug use for relieving pain during hospitalization for cesarean, given that the popularity of integrative medicine and spiritual healing has been increasing. It had the aim of evaluating whether reiki or prayer is effective in relieving pain during cesarean section. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review with meta-analysis conducted at Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The following databases were searched up to March 2016: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and CENTRAL. Randomized controlled trials published in English or Portuguese were included in the review. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A GRADE table was produced to evaluate the risk of bias. RESULTS: There was evidence with a high risk of bias showing a statistically significant decrease in pain score through use of reiki and prayer, in relation to the protocol group: mean difference = -1.68; 95% confidence interval: -1.92 to -1.43; P < 0.00001; I2 = 92%. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in heart rate or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Evidence with a high risk of bias suggested that reiki and prayer meditation might be associated with pain reduction.
RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Esta revisão sistemática comparou o reiki e a oração ao uso de medicamentos, a fim de aliviar a dor durante a internação para cesariana, visto que há um aumento na popularidade da medicina integrativa e cura espiritual. Esta revisão teve como objetivo avaliar se o reiki ou oração são eficazes no alívio da dor durante a cesariana. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão sistemática com metanálise realizada na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu UNESP, São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As seguintes bases de dados foram pesquisadas até março de 2016: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS e CENTRAL. Nesse sentido, foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados publicados em inglês e português. Dois revisores rastrearam independentemente artigos elegíveis, extraíram dados e avaliaram o risco de viés. A tabela GRADE foi realizada para avaliar o risco de viés. RESULTADOS: Evidências com alto índice de viés encontraram uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na redução da dor (diferença média = -1,68; intervalo de confiança de 95%: -1,92 a -1,43; P < 0,00001; I2 = 92%), com o uso de reiki e oração comparado com o grupo protocolar. Além disso, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. CONCLUSÃO: Evidência com alto risco de viés sugeriu que reiki e meditação oração podem ser associadas com a redução da dor.