ABSTRACT Purpose: Enucleation of a large prostate is the best surgical choice for patients refractory to clinical treatment (1,2). Since the first robot-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) was described (3,4), some technical modifications (5–7) and different approaches to reach the adenoma have been proposed (8,9). The aim of this video is to demonstrate three different techniques of RASP. Materials and Methods: The first procedure begins with a transversal incision over the bladder neck, the second is a transvesical approach and the last one is a Retzius-sparing RASP. All techniques were performed with a vesico-urethral anastomosis. Results: Three patients underwent RASP, each one with a different approach. Patients presented mean age of 66±4.4 years, PSA baseline level of 7.8±3ng/mL, IPSS score of 17.7±4.5, maximum urine flow of 8.3±1.5mL/seg and 122.3±11.2cm3 of prostate volume. The mean operative time was 63±8 minutes, estimated blood loss of 106.7±11.5mL, prostate weight of the surgical specimen of 106.3±8 grams and 1 day of length of stay. No continuous bladder irrigation was required and there was no complication. The mean postoperative PSA and IPSS were 0.7±0.3ng/mL, 4.7±1.5. The maximum urine flow raised to 20±4.4mL/seg. Conclusions: RASP with vesico-urethral anastomosis allowed minimal blood loss, short length of stay and great functional outcomes. All the three approaches allowed to perform this technique in a safe way, while showing different alternatives to reach the adenoma.
Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre testosterona sérica total (TT) e grau do câncer de próstata (CP) e o efeito da raça e de características demográficas sobre essa associação. Método: Foram analisados 695 pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical (PR), dos quais 423 tinham medidas dos níveis séricos de TT. Os pacientes foram classificados como portadores de hipogonadismo ou eugonadismo com base em dois limites de testosterona: limite 1 (300 ng/dL) e limite 2 (250 ng/dL). Avaliou-se a relação entre nível de TT e escore Gleason (GS) ≥ 7 em amostras de PR. Os resultados foram avaliados por análises univariada e multivariada, com ajuste para raça e outros fatores prognósticos demográficos. Resultados: Do total de 423 pacientes, 37,8% apresentavam hipogonadismo com base no limite 1, e 23,9% com base no limite 2. Os pacientes com hipogonadismo, independentemente do limite de referência, tiveram uma chance maior de GS ≥ 7 (OR 1,79, p=0,02 e OR 2,08, p=0,012, respectivamente). Na análise multivariada, após ajuste para idade, TT, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e raça, baixo TT (p=0,023) e idade (p=0,002) foram considerados fatores de risco independentes para GS ≥ 7. Entre os indivíduos negros, baixo TT sérico foi mais preditivo de doença de alto grau em comparação com os brancos (p=0,02). Conclusão: O hipogonadismo é independentemente associado a escores mais altos de GS no CP localizado. O efeito dessa associação é significativamente mais pronunciado entre homens negros, o que poderia explicar, em parte, as características agressivas do CP observadas nessa população.
Summary Objective: To evaluate the relation between serum total testosterone (TT) and prostate cancer (PCa) grade and the effect of race and demographic characteristics on such association. Method: We analyzed 695 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), of whom 423 had serum TT collected. Patients were classified as having hypogonadism or eugonadism based on two thresholds of testosterone: threshold 1 (300 ng/dL) and threshold 2 (250 ng/dL). We evaluated the relation between TT levels and a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 in RP specimens. Outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses, accounting for race and other demographic predictors. Results: Out of 423 patients, 37.8% had hypogonadism based on the threshold 1 and 23.9% based on the threshold 2. Patients with hypogonadism, in both thresholds, had a higher chance of GS ≥ 7 (OR 1.79, p=0.02 and OR 2.08, p=0.012, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, TT, body mass index (BMI) and race, low TT (p=0.023) and age (p=0.002) were found to be independent risk factors for GS ≥ 7. Among Black individuals, low serum TT was a stronger predictor of high-grade disease compared to White men (p=0.02). Conclusion: Hypogonadism is independently associated to higher GS in localized PCa. The effect of this association is significantly more pronounced among Black men and could partly explain aggressive characteristics of PCa found in this race.