The goal of this manuscript is provide to students of Chemistry and related areas an alternative experiment in which they can obtain a compound and learn to observe and interpret properties and predict organic structure by obtaining furfural from biomass. Furfural is an organic compound, obtained through acid hydrolysis of pentosans, commonly used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Students are guided to get furfural through extractive procedures and chemical reactions adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale. Characterization of furfural was done by chemical tests and physical properties. Identification was accomplished by a series of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
This work presents an optimized integrated experiment for isolation of clove bud essential oil, rich in eugenol, and subsequent utilization of the solid residue for furfural synthesis. The operationally simple laboratory protocols and utilization of water as a solvent in both operations, plus the use of biomass as the starting material for preparation of versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, make the experiments attractive for undergraduate experimental organic chemistry courses in the context of green chemistry. In addition, this is the first description of the use of biomass (clove bud) in the simultaneous preparation of two chemical feedstocks, eugenol and furfural, on experimental organic chemistry courses.
In this work we describe an experiment for the thermal cracking of octane and heptane and the qualitative analyses of the products using the Baeyer test for unsaturated compounds and gas chromatographic analyses. The experiment is very simple and requires one period of two hours and is suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry experimental courses.
This article decribes a simple and systematic method to interpret an infrared spectrum using a flow chart to elucidate the structure of a simple organic compound. It is aimed at undergraduate courses of organic chemistry to make beginners proficient. The proposed flow chart for infrared spectrum interpretation and characterization of organic compounds is suitable for theoretical and experimental courses.
Eight triterpenes, maniladiol, breine, ursa-9(11):12-dien-3beta-ol, oleana-9(11):12-dien-3beta-ol, 3alpha-hydroxy-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, 3alpha-hydroxy-tirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic, alpha and beta amyrines were isolated as binary mixtures obtained from the chloroform extract of the oil-resin of Protium heptaphyllum March. The identification of the compounds was based mainly in 13C NMR data and mass spectra. The diene and the tetracyclic acid triterpenes were not reported before in the literature as constituents of the studied resin.