OBJECTIVES: We designed a cohort study to describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in the largest public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, as Latin America becomes the epicenter of the pandemic. METHODS: This is the protocol for a study being conducted at an academic hospital in Brazil with 300 adult ICU beds dedicated to COVID-19 patients. We will include adult patients admitted to the ICU with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. The main outcome is ICU survival at 28 days. Data will be collected prospectively and retrospectively by trained investigators from the hospital’s electronic medical records, using an electronic data capture tool. We will collect data on demographics, comorbidities, severity of disease, and laboratorial test results at admission. Information on the need for advanced life support and ventilator parameters will be collected during ICU stay. Patients will be followed up for 28 days in the ICU and 60 days in the hospital. We will plot Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate ICU and hospital survival and perform survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify the main risk factors for mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04378582. RESULTS: We expect to include a large sample of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and to be able to provide data on admission characteristics, use of advanced life support, ICU survival at 28 days, and hospital survival at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide epidemiological data about critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Brazil, which could inform health policy and resource allocation in low- and middle-income countries.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet on gingival alterations in rats. One hundred and twenty male Holtzman rats were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 12), being 2 control groups treated with saline and 8 test groups treated with diltiazem in daily doses of 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg during 40 or 60 days. Afterwards, the mandibles were removed for macroscopic, histologic and histometric analyses of the buccal gingiva of the mandibular right first molar. No macroscopic characteristic of gingival overgrowth was observed in any of the groups. The microscopic analysis showed characteristics of normality with inflammatory cells only adjacent to the crevicular epithelium in all groups for both periods. The histometric analysis showed significant differences only for the epithelial tissue area in the 40-day period (Kruskal-Wallis; P = 0.032). Comparing the periods, significant differences regarding the connective and epithelial tissue areas were observed only in the group treated with a 25 mg/kg dose (Mann-Whitney; P = 0.004 and P = 0.007, respectively). Oral administration of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet did not induce gingival alterations in rats.