The relationship between surfactant-associated protein D polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk remains controversial. This article is the first to systematically evaluate this relationship. A comprehensive worldwide search was conducted for relevant literature on surfactant-associated protein D gene mutations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk prediction. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. After four genetic models (the allele, additive, recessive, and dominant models) were identified, odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 659 individuals in the case group and 597 in the control group. In the Asian population, none of the four genetic models revealed any significant association between rs2243639 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In Caucasians, however, the recessive model exhibited significant risk associated with rs2243639. Furthermore, there was a significant association between rs721917 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population. In contrast, none of the four gene models revealed any significant risk associated with this gene in the Caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggests that rs2243639 is not related to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population but is related to this risk in the Caucasian population. Regarding rs721917, the T allele may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population.