In the present work, geopolymer matrices were developed by alkali activation of metakaolin, using NaOH and sodium silicate as activators. The samples of metakaolin and matrices were studied by thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) at temperatures between 22°C and 1000°C in a nitrogen atmosphere with a heating rate of 10°C/min. The analyses showed gradual mass losses for MK1 and MK2, occurring in the temperature range of 350-700°C, associated with the dehydroxylation of the kaolinite present in the metakaolin samples, when transforming into reactive metakaolin. Thermal analysis allowed to identify mass losses associated with the different events that occurred during the formation of the geopolymer structure. The formation of amorphous geopolymer networks was confirmed by the XRD and FTIR techniques. The quantitative analysis of XRD results by using the Rietveld method allowed determine the amorphous and crystalline content of the precursors and geopolymers. The results obtained, after analyzing the matrices, showed that the geopolymers obtained presented a mechanical performance comparable to systems found in the literature, with uniaxial compressive strengths ranging from 38-50 MPa and stiffness around 7 GPa. Hence, these systems are suitable for their future use as alternative binder materials for the production of mortars and concretes.
This paper addresses the results of an investigation on the influence of the Brazilian raw materials on the mechanical performance of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC). The mixtures were produced with variations of fly ash/cement and sand/cement proportions and with different maximum sand particle. Mechanical properties were evaluated by direct tension, bending and compression tests. Crack formation under direct tension and bending loads was also investigated. The results indicate that the use of high quantities of fly ash with low quantities of fine sand is the ideal combination to obtain strain hardening composites with tensile strain capacity superior to 3% using local materials. The increase in the sand content and particle size affects the behavior of the composites and tended to reduce the strain capacity of the specimens by up to 30%. Keeping constant the fly ash/cement and sand/cement rates it was found that the crack density and width measured under direct tension are only affected by the diameter of the sand for tensile strains in the range of 2%. The same general trends were observed for specimens submitted to compressive and bending loads.
This work presents the results of a study on the hydration of pastes containing calcium hydroxide and either rice husk ash (RHA) or sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in various initial CaO/SiO2 molar ratios. The products of the reactions were characterized by thermal analyses X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of the RHA pastes, the product was composed of CaO-SiO2-H2O (type I C-S-H) or CaO-SiO2-H2O (type II C-S-H) according to the CaO/SiO2 ratio of the mixture. In contrast, in the case of the SBCA pastes, the product was composed primarily of CaO-SiO2-H2O that differed from both the previous types; the product also contained inclusions of calcium aluminate hydrates.
In the present paper, the thermal durability of polyvinyl alcohol fibers (PVA) was studied after fiber samples had been subjected to temperatures ranging from 90°C to 250°C. Residual mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation at break, and physical properties, such as density were determined. Weibull statistics were used to quantify the degree of variability in fiber strength, at the different temperature. In addition, thermal analysis of PVA fibers were carried out employing thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry up to the temperature of 800°C. SEM analysis of heated and unheated samples had been carried out in order to allow the identification of the changes in the microstructure of the fibers. The degradation process of PVA fibers manifests itself in a significant loss of mass, stiffness and strength of the fibers, which is progressive with increasing temperature. Thermal analysis has shown that the melting point of PVA fibers begins at approximately 200°C and thermal degradation initiates at about 239ºC. However, progressive loss in tensile strength and elastic modulus was observed starting at a temperature as low as 90°C, due to glass transition temperature of PVA fibers at approximately 66°C. At 220°C, the elastic modulus and strength were reduced at about 45% and 52%, respectively, when compared with respective values of unheated samples. With regards to Weibull modulus, the statistical parameter did not exhibit significant influence on temperature for samples heated up to 145°C, which ranged from 23.4 to 28.8. However, samples heated to 220°C showed a sudden reduction in Weibull modulus to 8.6, indicating that a significant change occurred in the populations of fracture inducing flaws at this temperature level, which clearly affect the tensile strength and Weibull modulus.
This paper presents a study on the production of silica gel in hydrothermal process using residual rice husk ash. Measurements of the chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution, and pozzolanic activity were carried out in order to characterize the obtained material, and the optimal silica gel was selected for use as a mineral additive in cement pastes. The compressive strengths were determined for cement pastes containing silica gel (0.0, 2.5 or 5% by mass) in different times. The results indicate that the mixtures containing silica gel showed improved mechanical behavior over all time periods evaluated.
This paper describes the use of ultrafine rice husk ash with high-carbon content in ordinary and high-strength concretes. The influence of ultrafine ash (10, 15 and 20% of cement replacement, in mass) on rheology (yield stress and plastic viscosity), compressive strength (7, 28, 90, and 180 days) and rapid chloride-ion penetrability was investigated. In addition, two experiments were carried out on an adiabatic calorimeter to investigate the exothermic behavior of a reference concrete and conventional concrete with 15% ultrafine ash. The results indicated that the addition of ultrafine rice husk ash improved the evaluated properties for both types of concrete.
Resumo Este trabalho descreve o emprego de cinza ultrafina da casca de arroz com elevado teor de carbono em concretos de resistência convencional e de alta resistência. Estudou-se a influência do emprego da cinza ultrafina (10%, 15% e 20% de substituição de cimento, em massa) nas propriedades reológicas (tensão de escoamento e viscosidade plástica), na resistência à compressão (7, 28, 90 e 180 dias) e na penetração acelerada de íons cloreto. Além disso, a elevação adiabática da temperatura de um concreto convencional com 15% de cinza ultrafina foi comparada com a elevação de um concreto de referência. Os resultados indicaram que a cinza ultrafina produz melhorias significativas nas propriedades dos concretos para ambas as classes de resistência.
This work presents the results of morphological and physical-chemical characteristics of a sugar cane bagasse ash material sample produced under controlled burning conditions. The investigation was carried out by analyzing chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, morphology, thermal analysis, particle size, specific surface, and density. Moreover, the pozzolanic activity of the ash was evaluated by pozzolanic activity index and Chapelle's method. The results suggest that the sugar cane bagasse ash has adequate properties to be used as pozzolan in construction materials.