Abstract The high consumption of sugars is linked to the intermediate hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance associated with obesity, inducing the prediabetes. However, the consequences of excessive invert sugar intake on glucose metabolism and genomic stability were poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of invert sugar overload (32%) in rats, analyzing changes in obesity, glucose tolerance, pancreatic/hepatic histology and primary and permanent DNA damage. After 17 weeks, the rats became obese and had an excessive abdominal fat, as well as presented impaired glucose tolerance, caused by higher sugar caloric intake. Primary DNA damage, evaluated by the comet assay, was increased in the blood, however not in the pancreas. No protein carbonylation was seen in serum. Moreover, no increase in permanent DNA damage was seen in the bone marrow, evaluated using the micronucleus test. Some rats presented liver steatosis and that the pancreatic islets were enlarged, but not significantly. In this study, invert sugar altered the glucose metabolism and induced primary DNA damage in blood, but did not cause significant damage to the pancreas or liver, and neither changes in the levels of oxidative stress or permanent DNA damage.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC) on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I-water control; II-sucrose control; III-hesperidin control; IV-VitC control; V-co-treatment of sucrose plus hesperidin; VI-co-treatment of sucrose plus VitC. We measured the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C). DNA damage was evaluated in blood and brain cells using the comet assay and the micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the rat bone marrow. Co-treatment with VitC, but not with hesperidin, normalized the serum glucose. No effect of co-treatments was observed on A1C. The co-treatment with VitC or hesperidin did not influence the lipid profile (p>0.05). Rats co-treated with hesperidin had a significantly lower DNA damage level in blood (p<0.05) and brain (p<0.05). Rats treated with VitC only, but not those co-treated with VitC plus sucrose, had significantly higher DNA damage in brain (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the results of micronucleus test (p>0.05). Hesperidin and VitC showed different effects on sucrose and DNA damage levels. While VitC lowered the serum glucose, hesperidin reduced the DNA damage.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the high consumption of sucrose on the levels of DNA damage in blood, hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated for 4 months with sucrose (10% for 60 initial days and 34% for the following 60 days) in drinking water, and then, glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were measured. Levels of DNA damage in blood and hippocampus were evaluated by the comet assay. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the bone marrow. The sucrose treatment significantly increased (p<0.01) the serum glucose levels (~20%) and A1C (~60%). The level of primary DNA damage was significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampal cells (~60%) but not in peripheral blood leukocytes (p>0.05). Additionally, it was observed a significative increase (p<0.05) in the markers of chromosomal breaks/losses in bone marrow, as indicated by the micronucleus test. This is the first study that evaluated DNA damage induced by high sucrose concentration in the hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Sucrose-induced DNA damage was observed in both tissues. However, the mechanism of sucrose toxicity on DNA remains unknown.
RESUMO A doença de Parkinson é caracterizada pela morte dos neurônios dopaminérgicos, principalmente na substância negra, e causa sérias disfunções locomotoras. É provável que o dano oxidativo às biomoléculas celulares esteja entre as principais causas da neurodegeneração que ocorre nessa doença. O selênio é um mineral essencial para o adequado funcionamento do encéfalo e, principalmente devido a sua atividade antioxidante, é possível que exerça um papel especial na prevenção e no manejo nutricional da doença de Parkinson. Atualmente, poucos pesquisadores têm investigado os efeitos do selênio sobre a doença de Parkinson. Entretanto, sabe-se que níveis corporais muito altos ou muito baixos de selênio podem (possivelmente) contribuir para a patogênese da doença de Parkinson, uma vez que esse desbalanço resulta no aumento dos níveis de estresse oxidativo. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é revisar e discutir os estudos que abordaram esses tópicos e então associar as informações obtidas através deles para que esses dados e associações sejam usadas para o estabelecimento de novas pesquisas.
ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons, mainly in the substantia nigra, and causes serious locomotor dysfunctions. It is likely that the oxidative damage to cellular biomolecules is among the leading causes of neurodegeneration that occurs in the disease. Selenium is an essential mineral for proper functioning of the brain, and mainly due to its antioxidant activity, it is possible to exert a special role in the prevention and in the nutritional management of Parkinson's disease. Currently, few researchers have investigated the effects of selenium on Parkinson´s disease. However, it is known that very high or very low body levels of selenium can (possibly) contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, because this imbalance results in increased levels of oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this work is to review and discuss studies that have addressed these topics and to finally associate the information obtained from them so that these data and associations serve as input to new research.
RESUMO Este estudo avaliou a memória de reconhecimento e os níveis de danos no DNA (sangue e hipocampo) em ratos Wistar jovens desnutridos. O experimento foi conduzido ao longo de 14 semanas com os animais divididos em grupo controle (GC, n=8) e grupo desnutrido (GD, n=12) que foi submetido a restrição calórica. O estado nutricional para desnutrição foi definido pelo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) de ≤0,45g/cm2 e pela pesagem dos órgãos/tecido (fígado, baço, intestino, gordura peritoneal, rim e encéfalo). O Teste de Reconhecimento de Objeto Novo avaliou a memória de reconhecimento e o Ensaio Cometa avaliou os níveis de danos no DNA. O teste t de Student, ANOVA de duas vias e a análise de correlação de Pearson foram usados e o nível de significância foi de p<0,05. O GD apresentou um menor IMC e menores pesos dos órgãos/tecido que o GC (p<0,001). Em relação à memória de curto prazo, a taxa de reconhecimento foi maior no GD (p<0,05), apenas após 4 semanas. Em relação à memória de longo prazo, novamente a taxa de reconhecimento foi maior no GD em comparação ao GC, depois de 4 semanas (p<0,001) e depois de 14 semanas (p<0,01). O GD apresentou diminuição dos níveis de danos no DNA no sangue (p<0,01) e aumento nos níveis de danos no DNA no hipocampo (p<0,01). Concluiu-se neste estudo que a desnutrição pela restrição calórica não causou prejuízo na memória de reconhecimento, porém induziu danos no DNA no hipocampo.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the recognition memory and the levels of DNA damage (blood and hippocampus) in undernourished young Wistar rats. The experiment was conducted along 14-week with rodents divided in control group (CG, n=8) and undernourished group (UG, n=12) which was submitted to caloric restriction. Nutritional status for undernutrition was defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤0.45g/cm2 and by weighting the organs/tissue (liver, spleen, intestine, peritoneal fat, kidney and encephalon). The Novel Object Recognition Test assessed recognition memory and the Comet Assay evaluated the levels of DNA damage. Student t test, 2-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analysis were used and the significance level was of p<0.05. The UG showed lower BMI and organ/tissue weights than CG (p<0.001). In short-term memory, the recognition rate was higher in the UG (p<0.05), only after 4 weeks. In the long-term memory, again recognition rate was higher in the UG than the CG, after 4 weeks (p<0.001) and 14 weeks (p<0.01). The UG showed decreased levels of DNA damage in the blood (p<0.01) and increased levels in the hippocampus (p<0.01). We concluded in this study that the undernutrition by caloric restriction did not cause impairment in recognition memory, however induced DNA damage in the hippocampus.
O risco de desenvolver doença cardiovascular (DCV) está relacionado ao estilo de vida (por exemplo, dieta, atividade física e tabagismo), bem como a fatores genéticos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre fatores de risco cardiovascular e os níveis de danos ao DNA em crianças e adolescentes. Antropometria, dieta e fatores de risco para DCV foram avaliados através de procedimentos padrão. Níveis de danos no DNA foram avaliados através do ensaio cometa (eletroforese de célula única; EC) e do teste de micronúcleos em leucócitos. Um total de 34 crianças e adolescentes, selecionados a partir de uma amostra populacional, foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com seu nível de risco de DCV. Indivíduos com níveis moderado e alto risco para DCV apresentaram de forma significativa maiores níveis de gordura corporal e de marcadores séricos de risco cardiovascular que indivíduos de baixo risco (P <0,05). Indivíduos de alto risco também mostraram um aumento significativo de danos ao DNA, de acordo com o EC, mas não de acordo com o teste de micronúcleos, do que indivíduos de risco baixo e moderado. A vitamina C consumida foi inversamente correlacionada com os danos ao DNA avaliados pelo EC, e o número de micronúcleos foi inversamente correlacionado com a ingestão de ácido fólico. Os resultados obtidos indicam um aumento de danos no DNA que pode ser consequente do estresse oxidativo em indivíduos jovens com fatores de risco para DCV, indicando que o nível de danos no DNA pode auxiliar na avaliação do risco de DCV.
The risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is related to lifestyle (e.g. diet, physical activity and smoking) as well as to genetic factors. This study aimed at evaluating the association between CVD risk factors and DNA damage levels in children and adolescents. Anthropometry, diet and serum CVD risk factors were evaluated by standard procedures. DNA damage levels were accessed by the comet assay (Single cell gel electrophoresis; SCGE) and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays in leukocytes. A total of 34 children and adolescents selected from a population sample were divided into three groups according to their level of CVD risk. Moderate and high CVD risk subjects showed significantly higher body fat and serum CVD risk markers than low risk subjects (P<0.05). High risk subjects also showed a significant increase in DNA damage, which was higher than that provided by low and moderate risk subjects according to SCGE, but not according to the CBMN assay. Vitamin C intake was inversely correlated with DNA damage by SCGE, and micronucleus (MN) was inversely correlated with folate intake. The present results indicate an increase in DNA damage that may be a consequence of oxidative stress in young individuals with risk factors for CVD, indicating that the DNA damage level can aid in evaluating the risk of CVD.