Abstract Introduction: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD or TMJD) involve clinical problems and symptoms affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures. The temporomandibular joints are anatomically connected to the cervical region, where cervical spine movements occur simultaneously to masticatory muscle activation and jaw movements. Objective: Our study sought to assess the relationship between the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), surface electromyography (sEMG) of the masticatory muscles, posture and cervical flexibility in women with TMD. Method: Fifty women with an average age of 27.0 ± 6.37 years, diagnosed with TMD according to RDC/TMD, were assessed for craniocervical posture, cervical flexibility and sEMG of the masticatory muscles. Results: There were no differences in jaw function limitations, depression, pain level and its interference in work ability and daily activities, posture and sEMG between TMD diagnoses or between muscle classification (p > 0.05). Depression scores were higher among participants with biarticular dysfunction (p = 0.023). The group with bruxism exhibited a higher pain level at assessment (p = 0.001) and a greater reduction in work ability (p = 0.039). Subjects with muscular and mixed TMD showed less cervical rotation to the right when compared with those with articular TMD. Conclusion: There was no difference in posture or sEMG values for TMD diagnoses, joint and muscle dysfunctions and the presence of bruxism. Muscle dysfunction is associated with reduced cervical rotation to the right. Jaw function limitations did not interfere in posture or sEMG and depression was associated with pain.
Resumo Introdução: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) compreende alterações clínicas e sintomas que envolvem a articulação temporomandibular (ATM) e estruturas associadas. A ATM possui conexões anatômicas com a região cervical, onde os movimentos das vértebras cervicais ocorrem simultaneamente com a ativação dos músculos mastigatórios e dos movimentos da mandíbula. Objetivo: O objetivo foi verificar a relação entre achados do Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) com a eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs) da musculatura mastigatória, postura e flexibilidade cervical em mulheres com DTM. Método: Cinquenta mulheres com DTM, pelo RDC/TMD, com idade média de 27,0 ± 6,37 anos foram avaliadas quanto à postura craniocervical, flexibilidade cervical e EMGs da musculatura mastigatória. Resultados: Não houve diferença quanto às limitações relacionadas à função mandibular (LRFM), depressão, grau de dor e interferência no trabalho e atividades diárias, postura e EMGs entre os diagnósticos de DTM e entre a classificação muscular (p > 0,05). O comprometimento biarticular apresentou maior depressão (p = 0,023). O grupo com bruxismo apresentou maior grau de dor no momento (p = 0,001), e maior comprometimento na capacidade de trabalhar (p = 0,039). A DTM muscular e mista tiveram menor rotação à direita em comparação ao diagnóstico articular. Conclusão: Os diagnósticos de DTM, os variados comprometimentos articulares e musculares e a presença de bruxismo não apresentaram diferença quanto à postura e a EMGs. O comprometimento muscular está associado a uma menor rotação cervical à direita. As LRFM não interferiram na postura e na EMGs. A depressão tem associação com a dor.
Resumen Introducción: La disfunción temporomandibular (DTM) incluye alteraciones clínicas y síntomas que involucran la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) y estructuras asociadas. La ATM posee conexiones anatómicas con la región cervical donde los movimientos de las vértebras cervicales ocurren simultáneamente con la activación de los músculos masticatorios y de los movimientos de la mandíbula. Objetivo: Verificar la relación entre la presencia de hallazgos de Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) con la electromiografía superficial (EMG) de la musculatura masticatoria, postura y flexibilidad cervical en mujeres con DTM. Método: Cincuenta mujeres con DTM, por el RDC/TMD, con edad promedio de 27,0 ± 6,37 años fueron evaluadas en cuanto a la postura craniocervical, flexibilidad cervical y EMG de la musculatura masticatoria. Resultados: No hubo diferencia en las limitaciones relacionadas con la función mandibular (LRFM), depresión, grado de dolor e interferencia en el trabajo y actividades diarias, postura y EMG entre los diagnósticos de DTM y entre la clasificación muscular (p > 0,05). La disfunción biarticular presentó mayores puntuaciones de depresión (p = 0,023). El grupo con bruxismo presentó mayor grado de dolor (p = 0,001), y mayor reducción en la capacidad de trabajo (p = 0,039). La DTM muscular y mixta tuvieron menor rotación a la derecha en comparación con el diagnóstico articular. Conclusión: Los diagnósticos de DTM con los variados comprometimientos articulares y musculares y la presencia de bruxismo no presentaron diferencias en cuanto a la postura y la EMG. El comprometimiento muscular está asociado a una menor rotación a la derecha de la cervical. Las LRFM no interfirieron en la postura y la EMG, y la depresión estuvo asociada con el dolor.
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in association with physical exercise, on the metabolic and biochemical parameters of rats induced to obesity with a cafeteria diet. Male Wistar rats, aged 21 days, were randomly divided into: Controls (CON) receiving standard feed and water ad libitum; and obese (OBESE) receiving cafeteria diet ad libitum, added to the standard diet. Groups were then subdivided into: Liraglutide animals that received subcutaneous injections of liraglutide from 80 to 90 days of life; exercised (EXE) animals submitted to swimming sessions, three days a week (15 min); and liraglutide + EXE animals that received liraglutide in association with physical exercise. Treatment with liraglutide reduced deposits of mesenteric and periepididymal fat, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, glucose and insulin in obese group. It is important to note that the association of the two treatments reduced the body weight in animals, deposits of mesenteric and periepididymal fat, HOMA-IR, blood triglyceride levels, glucose and insulin in obese rats. As such, the association of liraglutide with exercise potentiated the effects of the drug and ameliorated obesity pathology more effectively. retirar
Abstract Periodontal research involves the use of animal models to better understand the biological processes of periodontal diseases and the potential of new or existing therapies. Currently, ligature-induced periodontitis in rats is the main model used in periodontal research, in this model, alveolar bone loss (ABL) is the main parameter evaluated by radiographic, morphometric, and histological techniques. Interestingly, although these methodologies are widely used, it is not totally clarified neither the kinetics of ABL over the induction time nor the agreement degree (repeatability and reproducibility) of these techniques. Objective: To characterize ABL kinetics at 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days after ABL induction by ligature and to evaluate the intra- (repeatability) and inter-examiner (reproducibility) agreement and the correlation among the radiographic, morphometric, and histological methodologies. Material and Methods: 60 male Wistar rats with induced ABL were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10 animals/group). After 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, the animals were euthanized and their hemimandibles were removed for ABL determination using radiographic, morphometric and histological techniques. Results: Radiographic and morphometric/linear techniques allowed the detection of statistically significant ABL on the third day, while histological and morphometric/area techniques could only detect ABL after the seventh day (ANOVA/Tukey, p<0.05). After the fifteenth day, except for histological analysis, the ABL was stabilized. Concerning the agreement of the methodologies, Bland Altman's test (intra and inter-examiner evaluations) showed no difference among the measurements (p>0.05). In addition, high correlations (Pearson's test, r2>0.9, p<0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The results indicated that the minimum time for ABL induction could vary from 3 to 7 days, according to the chosen analysis methodology. Agreement and correlation data support the comparison of results between studies with same induction time.
ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet) and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.
ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies.
Abstract The consumption of low-dose aspirin (LDA) to prevent cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide. Consequently, the number of chronic LDA users seeking dental procedures that require complementary acute anti-inflammatory medication has also grown. Considering the lack of literature evaluating this interaction, we analyzed the gastric and renal effects caused by a selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib) and a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor (ibuprofen) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in rats receiving chronic LDA therapy. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) - vehicle; LDA; LDA + ibuprofen; ibuprofen; LDA + etoricoxib; and etoricoxib) and submitted to long-term LDA therapy with a subsequent NSAID administration for three days by gavage. After the experimental period, we analyzed gastric and renal tissues and quantified serum creatinine levels. The concomitant use of LDA with either NSAID induced the highest levels of gastric damage when compared to the CMC group (F = 20.26, p < 0.05). Treatment with either LDA or etoricoxib alone was not associated with gastric damage. No significant damage was observed on kidney morphology and function (F = 0.5418, p > 0.05). These results suggest that even the acute use of an NSAID (regardless of COX-2 selectivity) can induce gastric damage when combined with the long-term use of low-dose aspirin in an animal model. Additional studies, including clinical assessments, are thus needed to clarify this interaction, and clinicians should be careful of prescribing NSAIDs to patients using LDA.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the mother's periodontal clinical status on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in newborns. METHODS: Seventy-six pairs of newborns and their biological mothers were selected. After a periodontal examination, the mother-child pairs were divided into two groups according to their maternal periodontal clinical status: mothers with (Group A, n=33) or without periodontitis (Group B, n=43). The oral colonization of newborns by five periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus) was determined using a DNA-specific PCR method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test at the significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: C. rectus was the most prevalent species observed (23.25%) in Group B, while in Group A P. gingivalis (96.97%) had the highest detection rate, followed by T. forsythia (60.60%) and P. intermedia (39.39%). Between-groups comparisons showed a greater frequency of all study pathogens among newborns from Group A. CONCLUSION: The maternal clinical periodontal status was a satisfactory indicator of the bacterial colonization pattern observed in their newborn children. Thus, longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm this relationship.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do estado clínico periodontal materno sobre a prevalência de patógenos periodontais em recém-nascidos. METODOLOGIA: Setenta e seis pares de recém-nascidos e suas mães biológicas foram selecionados. Após o exame periodontal, os pares mãe-criança foram divididos em dois grupos Segundo o estado clínico periodontal materno: mães com (Grupo A, n=33) ou sem periodontite (Grupo B, n=43). A colonização oral de recém-nascidos por cinco patógenos peridontais (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia e C. rectus) foi determinada usando um método PCR DNA-específico. A análise estatística foi realizada usando teste qui-quadrado ao nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: C. rectus foi a espécie mais prevalente (23,25%) no Grupo B, enquanto no Grupo A P. gingivalis (96,97%) teve a maior taxa de detecção, seguido de T. forsythia (60,60%) e P. intermedia (39,39%). As comparações entre-grupos mostraram uma maior frequência de todos os patógenos estudados entre os recém-nascidos do Grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: O estado clínico periodontal materno foi um indicador satisfatório do padrão de colonização bacteriana observado em recém-nascidos. Assim, estudos longitudinais devem ser realizados para confirmar esta relação.
Studies have suggested that A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the aetiology of aggressive periodontitis as well as in chronic periodontitis. This study was aimed at elucidating the occurrence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in a Brazilian population with chronic periodontitis. A total of 555 (mean age 33.04 ± 12.45) individuals, living in two large areas of the São Paulo State, namely "Baixada Santista" and "Vale do Paraíba", and diagnosed with mild [180 (mean age 29.59 ± 10.94)], moderate [241 (mean age 31.18 ± 11.45)] or severe [134 (mean age 33.04 ± 12.45)] chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this survey. Clinical exams including measurements of Probing Depth, Clinical Attachment Loss, Plaque and Gingival indices and subgingival microbiological assessments were performed at all population. The genomic DNA of A. actinomycetemcomitans was identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction from periodontal pocket samples. The occurrence of A. actinomycetemcomitans among chronic periodontitis subjects as well as its association with age and gender were statistically analysed using the Chi-square and Odds Ratio tests. The significance of differences was established at 5% (p < 0.05). A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 102 (18.37%) individuals: 29 (16.11%) mild; 42 (17.42%) moderate; and 31 (23.13%) severe chronic periodontitis with no statistical difference among groups. A higher occurrence of the searched bacterium was found both in the youngest group (p < 0.05) as well as in the female group (p < 0.05). This study elucidated that A. actinomycetemcomitans harbored subgingival pockets of our target group of chronic periodontitis subjects and that this bacterium seems to be inversely related to age, but related to the female gender.
Knowledge about the presence of some important oral pathogens is an important step in better identifying children at risk for periodontal and/or caries diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of Streptococcus mutans (Sm), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Campylobacter rectus (Cr), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) in gingival biofilm samples from 196 children, and to assess whether any of these pathogens are more associated with gingival inflammation extension and the Decayed/Missing/Filled teeth (DMFT/dmft) index. The subjects presented plaque index greater than 80% and were divided in 3 groups according to the bleeding index (BI): I) Low bleeding (< 30%), II) Medium bleeding (31 - 59%) and III) High bleeding (> 60%). The presence of each pathogen was determined by PCR. The prevalence of Sm was 71.9% and the mean dmft/DMFT was 6.68. The prevalence in low, medium and high bleeding groups was 43.5%, 34.5% and 46.7% for Aa; 43.5%, 37.9%, and 36.7% for Cr; 99.1%, 100%, and 96.7% for Pg; 56.5%, 56.9%, and 66.7% for Pi; and 58.3%, 60.3%, and 56.7% for Tf, respectively. Pg (99.0%) was the most prevalent periodontal pathogen detected followed by Tf (58.7%), Pi (58.2%), Aa (41.3%) and Cr (40.8%). Our study indicated that in this high plaque index population studied, a high prevalence of Sm and high mean DMFT were observed. In addition, the presence of Pi was associated with the presence of inflammation (P < 0.05) whereas Cr was associated with periodontal health (P < 0.05).