Tuta absoluta é praga chave do tomateiro, causando danos consideráveis à produção. O controle tem sido feito principalmente com inseticidas sintéticos, porém óleos de origem botânica têm-se destacado no controle de artrópodes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do óleo de Melia azedarach sobre T. absoluta, também conhecido por óleo de cinamomo. O óleo extraído de M. azedarach foi diluído em 50,0 mL de água destilada nas concentrações de 1,87; 3,75; 7,50; 15,00; 30,00 e 60,00 mg mL-1, constituindo-se os respetivos tratamentos, além do inseticida Deltametrina 25 EC (2,5% de deltametrina na formulação emulsionável) com concentração de 30 ml para 100 L de água (0,3%) e testemunha (água). Foram realizados testes de preferência alimentar com e sem chance de escolha, onde foi avaliada a atratividade para lagartas em diferentes dias após aplicação dos tratamentos (D.A.A.) e a área foliar consumida. Também se conduziu outro ensaio onde se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: número de lagartas mortas a 2, 5, 7 e 10 D.A.A. e duração do período e mortalidade larval e pupal. O óleo de M. azedarach não causou efeito de repelência e deterrência alimentar em T. absoluta, porém foi efetivo na mortalidade de lagartas de T. absoluta.
Tuta absoluta is a key pest of tomato, causing considerable damage. Control has been conducted mainly using synthetic insecticides. However, oils of botanical origin are promising for the control of arthropods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on T. absoluta of the Melia azedarach oil, also known as cinnamon oil. The oil extracted from M. azedarach was diluted in 50,0 mL of distilled water at the concentrations 1,87; 3,75; 7,50; 15,00; 30,00 and 60,00 mg mL-1 in addition to the insecticide deltametrin 25 EC (2,5% deltamethrin in the emulsifiable concentrate) with a concentration of 30 mL per 100 L of water (0,3%) and control (water). Food preference tests were carried out with and without a choice, where the attractiveness to caterpillars was evaluated on different days after application of the treatments (D.A.A.), along with the leaf area consumed. Another trial was conducted to evaluate the following parameters: number of dead caterpillars at 2, 5, 7 and 10 D.A.A. and duration of the period and larval and pupal mortality. M. azedarach oil did not cause repellency or food deterrence in T. absoluta, but was effective on mortality of T. absoluta caterpillars.
This study shows that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used as supporting tools for the evaluation of the quality of antiparasitics. In addition, an analytical methodology was developed and validated to quantify simultaneously thiabendazole (TB), febantel (FB), toltrazuril (TZ), and fluazuron (FZ) in bulk and in their veterinary pharmaceutical formulations using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In order to investigate stability, pharmaceuticals were submitted to degradation processes under different conditions, such as recommended by the International Conference on Harmonization. The chromatographic conditions were optimized and the validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, precision, accuracy, and robustness showed results within acceptable standards. All analytes were stable in the stability assays in acid and basic media and thermal conditions, except in the oxidation process, which presented two degradation peaks. Physicochemical characterization by TGA, FTIR, and SEM of raw materials of TB, FB, TZ, and FZ provided information about the authenticity of the analytes, proving the wide applicability of the instrumental techniques. The RP-HPLC proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, and reproducible and can in addition be used for routine quality control analysis.
Phytochemical investigation of the leaf extracts from Miconia ferruginata (Melastomataceae) led to the isolation and characterization of the flavonoids 5,6,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methylflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-dimetilflavone, triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, in addition to the steroids β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. This paper also describes the insecticidal effects of leaf extracts from M. ferruginata to one of the main pests of maize, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). The ingestion bioassays, the leaf extracts showed an elongation of the larval stage of 16.56 days as compared to the control.
ABSTRACT. Stability during storage is a limiting factor in the development and use of bioinsecticides. This study aims to evaluate the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana with components used in encapsulated formulations and to evaluate shelf-life in formulations with B. bassiana. Sodium alginate and maltodextrin, hemicellulose, and dimethyl sulfoxide solvents were evaluated. Compatibility was evaluated by mixing the components with PDA, and the parameters evaluated were vegetative growth, sporulation and viability. The formulations of fungi were prepared in various concentrations of sodium alginate and then added drop-wise to calcium chloride. To evaluate the stability, formulations were stored at 26.5, 4.0, and -20.0°C. Monthly, samples were taken, and the capsules were placed on Petri dishes with PDA to verify the growth after seven days of incubation. These evaluations were performed by the 12th month. Biopolymers evaluated were compatible with both fungi, exception maltodextrin at 1.5%, which was classified as moderately toxic to B. bassiana. Dimethyl sulfoxide was classified as moderately toxic to B. bassiana at 3.0% and to M. anisopliae at 2.0% and 3.0%. The formulations were stable throughout the 12 months in the conditions evaluated, while for the pure conidia of the fungus, 46% viability in the 6th month at 26.5°C was observed.
RESUMO. A estabilidade no armazenamento é um fator limitante ao desenvolvimento e uso de bioinseticidas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a compatibilidade dos fungos entomopatogênicos M. anisopliae e B. bassiana com componentes utilizados em formulações encapsuladas e avaliar a estabilidade de formulações contendo B. bassiana bassiana. Alginato de sódio, maltodextrina, hemicelulose e o solvente dimetilsulfóxido foram avaliados. A compatibilidade foi avaliada misturando os componentes ao BDA e os parâmetros para avaliação foram crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e viabilidade. As formulações fúngicas foram preparadas em concentrações de alginato de sódio gotejadas em cloreto de cálcio. Para avaliar a estabilidade, as formulações foram armazenadas em 26,5; 4,0 e -20,0°C. Mensalmente, amostras foram sendo retiradas e as cápsulas colocadas em placas de Petri com BDA para verificar o crescimento após 7 dias de incubação. Essas avaliações ocorreram durante 12 meses. Os biopolímeros avaliados foram compatíveis a ambos os fungos, com exceção de maltodextrina a 1,5%, classificado como moderadamente tóxico para B. bassiana. O dimetilsulfóxido foi classificado como moderadamente tóxico para B. bassiana a 3,0%; e para M. anisopliae a 2,0 e 3,0%. As formulações permaneceram estáveis durante os 12 meses nas condições avaliadas, enquanto para o conídio puro, ao sexto mês já apresentava 46% de viabilidade a 26,5°C.
ABSTRACT Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) based insecticides are efficient for the control of various pest species, but their low residual effect and the lack of standardized formulations are problems for field use. Nanoformulations of neem in colloidal suspension or powder, containing the polymers poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly (β-hidroxibutirate) (PHB) or poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), in capsules or spheres, were developed in order to reduce biodegradation of the active neem compounds and improve their residual effect. Corn leaves treated with the nanoformulations were offered to first instar larvae of fall armyworm during 10 days, observing mortality and larval weight and comparing it to a commercial neem oil and negative controls. The residual effect of the four most efficient nanoformulations was evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days after spraying (DAS). Feeding preference tests with dual-choice (treatment vs. control) were performed with corn leaf disks at 1, 3 and 7 after DAS, and a preference index was determined 24 hours after larvae feeding on the disks. Some nanoformulations caused mortality up to 3 DAS and sublethal effects up to 7 DAS, but none outperformed the residual effect of commercial neem oil. All treatments showed phagodeterrence at 1 DAS, but this was lost over time. The short duration of the nanoformulations' efficacy suggests that there was little or no release of neem by the nanoparticles, so more studies are needed to improve the release kinetics of the nanoformulated products.
RESUMO Inseticidas à base de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) são eficientes para controle de várias espécies de pragas, porém o baixo efeito residual e a falta de padronização das formulações são um problema para uso em campo. Nanoformulações de nim em suspensão coloidal e em pó, contendo os polímeros poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL), poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB) e polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA) em cápsulas ou esferas, foram desenvolvidas, a fim de reduzir a biodegradação dos compostos ativos e melhorar seu efeito residual. Folhas de milho tratadas com as nanoformulações foram oferecidas a lagartas de primeiro ínstar de lagarta do cartucho durante 10 dias, observando-se a mortalidade e o peso larval e comparando com um óleo comercial de nim e controles negativos. O efeito residual das quatro nanoformulações mais eficientes foi avaliado aos 1, 3 e 7 dias, após a pulverização (DAP). Testes de preferência alimentar com dupla escolha (tratamento vs. controle) foram realizados com discos de folhas de milho aos 1, 3 e 7 DAP, e um índice de preferência foi determinado 24 horas após as lagartas se alimentarem nos discos foliares. Algumas nanoformulações causaram mortalidade até 3 DAP e efeitos subletais até 7 DAP, mas nenhuma superou o efeito residual do óleo comercial de nim. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram fagodeterrência em 1 DAP, mas esta foi perdida ao longo do tempo. A curta duração da eficiência das nanoformulações indica que houve pouca ou nenhuma liberação dos compostos das nanopartículas; assim, mais estudos são necessários para melhorar a cinética de liberação dos produtos nanoformulados.
Abstract This study evaluated the effect of Euclea natalensis gel on the reduction of erosive wear with or without abrasion, in enamel and dentin. During two five-day experimental crossover phases, volunteers (n = 10) wore palatal devices containing human enamel and dentin blocks (E = 8 and D = 8). The gel was applied in a thin layer in the experimental group, and was not applied in the control group. In the intraoral phase, volunteers used the palatal appliance for 12 h before the gel treatment, and were instructed to start the erosive challenges 6 h after the gel application. Erosion was performed with Coca-Cola® (for 5 min) 4 times/day. The appliance was then put back into the mouth and was brushed after 30 minutes. After intraoral exposure, the appliances were removed and the specimens were analyzed using profilometry (mean ± SD, μm). The Euclea natalensis gel caused less wear in enamel in the experimental group (EROS = 12.86 ± 1.75 µm; EROS + ABRAS = 12.13 ± 2.12 µm) than in the control group (EROS = 14.12 ± 7.66 µm; EROS + ABRAS = 16.29 ± 10.72 µm); however, the groups did not differ from each other significantly. A statistically significant value was found for erosion and eros + abrasion in dentin (p = 0.001). Euclea natalensis may play a role in the prevention of dentin loss under mild erosive and abrasive conditions. A clinical trial is required to confirm these promising results in a clinical situation.
This study evaluated the systemic insecticidal action and the residual effect of neem-based nanoformulations (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) on Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphs, a pest of several economic important crops. Colloidal suspensions containing nanocapsules loaded with derived products from A. indica were prepared by using biodegradable polymers such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB).The encapsulated matrix was a commercial formulation, which contained not only enriched amount of limonoids azadirachtin and 3-tigloilazadiractol, but also in known quantities (Azamax® 1.2 CE). Initially, it was estimated the LC50 of solutions containing neem oil, which were applied through irrigation water (soil) in tomato in order to control nymphs of B. tabaci. Afterwards, two lots of nanoformulations, varying in type and amount of polymers and in quantity of commercial oil, were evaluated for systemic action. The nanoformulations NC L5-2 (nanocapules in PCL) and NC L6-1 (nanocapsules in PHB) caused higher mortality among others and for this reason were assayed for residual effect. The estimated value for LC50 was 180.67 mg L–1 of azadirachtin. The results showed that systemic action of oils and nanoformulations containing neem compounds depends on environmental conditions. Azamax® did not show either deterrent effect of oviposition or effect on whitefly embryogenesis when applied in soil irrigation at the time of infestation. The nanoformulations selected are bioactives even about 30 days after application and do not differ of commercial product.
Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indicaA. Juss, Meliaceae) sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL) e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB). A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE). Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo) em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL) e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB), as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.
Xanthyletin is used as an inhibitor of the symbiotic fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) of the leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa), one of the most significant agricultural plague insects. The incorporation of this compound into nanoparticles is a promising approach to effectively control leaf-cutting ants. This study presents the development and validation of a specific analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification of the xanthyletin content in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. The analytical methodology developed was specific, linear, accurate, precise, and robust. The absolute recovery of xanthyletin in colloidal suspensions was nearly 100%. The HPLC method proved reliable for the quantification of xanthyletin content in nanoparticle formulations.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) experimental gel for the prevention of erosive wear on bovine dentin, in vitro. Material and Methods: One hundred dentin blocks were allocated into 5 experimental groups (20 samples each): C (control group, without gel); CG (control group, only base gel); F (fluoride gel, 1.23% NaF; pH 4.1, Dentsply; Brazil); N (Neem gel, 10% neem extract; pH 4.1, manipulation); NF (Neem+fluoride gel, 10% Neem extract and 1.23% NaF; pH 4.1, manipulation). The blocks were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours. After this, they were submitted to six alternating re- and demineralization cycles. The blocks were analyzed for wear (profilometry). The results were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P<0.05). Results: The mean wear (±SD, µm) was shown as follows in groups: C (13.09±0.99), CG (10.60±1.99), F (10.90±1.44), N (12.68±1.13) and NF (10.84±1.65). All gels showed some preventive action when compared with control group. However, significant differences were found only between Neem+fluoride gel and fluoride gel. Conclusion: A single application of a neem-containing fluoride gel reduced dentin erosion, thus it is a possible alternative in reducing dental wear. Further research should investigate the action mechanism and the synergism between them.
The use of insecticide plants is an important tool in the management of insect pests. Aiming to control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), neem nanoformulations were evaluated. After estimating the LC50 for a commercial neem oil formulation, selection bioassays were performed with 22 nanoformulations. In order to do that, newly emerged caterpillars were fed on leaflets treated with nanoformulation solutions for 10 days. The effect on the development and longevity of the insect was evaluated with the two most promising nanoformulations, aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 (NC 40 = Poly-β-hydroxibutirate nanocapsules). The LC50 for neem oil was estimated in 0.20% or 1.31mgL-1 of azadiractin. The nanoformulations aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 affected the insect development.
O uso de plantas inseticidas é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo de insetos-praga. Visando ao controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), nanoformulações de nim foram avaliadas. Após a estimativa de uma CL50 para uma formulação de óleo comercial de nim, bioensaios de seleção foram realizados com 22 nanoformulações. Para isso, lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas sobre folíolos tratados com soluções das nanoformulações durante 10 dias. Com as duas nanoformulações mais promissoras, NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó (NC 40=nanocápsulas de Poli- β-hidroxibutirato), foi avaliado o efeito sobre o desenvolvimento e a longevidade do inseto. A CL50 para o óleo de nim foi estimada em 0,20% ou 1,31mgL-1 de azadiractina. As nanoformulações NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of potassium oxalate, fluoride gel and two kinds of propolis gel to reduce the hydraulic conductance of dentin, in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The methodology used for the measurement of hydraulic conductance of dentin in the present study was based on a model proposed in literature. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs, obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 4 groups (n=9). The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: GI-10% propolis gel, pH 4.1; GII-30% propolis gel; GIII-3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4,1; and GIV-1.23% fluoride gel, pH 4.1, applied to the dentin under the following surface conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid application. The occluding capacity of the dentin tubules was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at ×500, ×1,000 and ×2,000 magnifications. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Groups I, II, III, IV did not differ significantly from the others in any conditions by reducing in hydraulic conductance. The active agents reduced dentin permeability; however they produced the smallest reduction in hydraulic conductance when compared to the presence of smear layer (P<0.05). The effectiveness in reducing dentin permeability did not differ significantly from 10% or 30% propolis gels. SEM micrographs revealed that dentin tubules were partially occluded after treatment with propolis. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, the application of 10% and 30% propolis gels did not seem to reduce the hydraulic conductance of dentin in vitro, but it showed capacity of partially obliterating the dentin tubules. Propolis is used in the treatment of different oral problems without causing significant great collateral effects, and can be a good option in the treatment of patients with dentin sensitivity.
Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg-1) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg-1) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.
Muita atenção tem sido dada ao desenvolvimento de inseticidas vegetais buscando-se um efetivo controle de ectoparasitas de bovinos, sem prejudicar animais, consumidores e meio ambiente. Este estudo, realizado de abril a julho de 2008, na Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, em São Carlos, SP, Brasil, avaliou a eficácia de uma torta comercial de nim (Azadirachta indica) no controle da mosca-dos-chifres (Haematobia irritans) em bovinos. A torta de nim, misturada ao sal mineral na concentração de 2%, foi fornecida a 20 vacas Nelore, durante nove semanas, e sua eficácia foi monitorada através de contagens semanais nos grupos tratado e controle. Infestações individuais foram registradas por meio de fotos digitais em todos os animais de ambos os grupos, e o número de moscas foi, posteriormente, quantificado com o auxílio de um sistema de análise de imagem computadorizado. A quantificação dos componentes da torta de nim, por cromatografia líquida, revelou a presença de azadiractina (421 mg.kg-1) e 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg-1). A adição da torta de nim a 2% reduziu o consumo de sal mineral em cerca de 22%. O tratamento com torta de nim a 2% não reduziu as infestações por mosca-dos-chifres em bovinos durante as nove semanas do estudo.
The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect.