Abstract Due to rising concerns for environmental and human health, many toxic compounds, such as auxin-based herbicides, have been tested in relation their toxicity effect. Especially cyto- and phytotoxic assays have been performed on a number monocot and eudicot plant species. In these approaches the toxicity level of the auxin is compared to a positive control – usually a commercial compound with known effects and chemical similarity to the target compound. However, many target compounds still lack an indication of an adequate positive control. Here, we evaluate the phytotoxic and cytotoxic effect of the auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, and picloram in order test their potential use as positive controls. All tested auxinic herbicides showed clastogenic and aneugenic effect mechanisms. The results indicate 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as the most phyto- and cytotoxic in the discontinuous method in Lactuca sativa L. and Allium cepa L., and also in the continuous method in A. cepa. Thus, we suggest 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a positive control for future mutagenesis studies involving new auxins. For studies with L. sativa in continuous method, we recommend the auxin picloram as positive control as this one was the only one which allowed the development of roots.
Objective: To conduct a geospatial analysis of suicide deaths among young people in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, and evaluate their association with socioeconomic and spatial determinants. Methods: Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data on suicide mortality rates (SMR) were extracted for three age groups (15-19, 20-24, and 25-29 years) from two 5-year periods (1998-2002 and 2008-2012). Geospatial data were analyzed through exploratory spatial data analysis. We applied Bayesian networks algorithms to explore the network structure of the socioeconomic predictors of SMR. Results: We observed spatial dependency in SMR in both periods, revealing geospatial clusters of high SMR. Our results show that socioeconomic deprivation at the municipality level was an important determinant of suicide in the youth population in Paraná, and significantly influenced the formation of high-risk SMR clusters. Conclusion: While youth suicide is multifactorial, there are predictable geospatial and sociodemographic factors associated with high SMR among municipalities in Paraná. Suicide among youth aged 15-29 occurs in geographic clusters which are associated with socioeconomic deprivation. Rural settings with poor infrastructure and development also correlate with increased SMR clusters.
Two types of manganese oxide were investigated for the removal/degradation of Orange G (OG) dye in aqueous solution. One manganese oxide (pyrolusite) was obtained commercially and the other (birnessite) was prepared according to the polyol method by means of the oxidation of MnII hydroxide by H2O2. Both materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption at 77 K. The effects of agitation time, pH, and MnO2 dose on the degradation of OG by the birnessite and pyrolusite were evaluated. Approximately 90 and 99% decoloration of OG (10 mg L-1) was obtained after 30 min of stirring with 0.20 g L-1 of birnessite or pyrolusite, respectively. The decoloration and increased intensity of absorbance bands in the UV-visible spectrum were indicative of a degradation process that followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The findings demonstrated the high efficiency of different types of manganese oxides for removal of this organic pollutant from waters.
Abstract Tetranychus ludeni damages the sweet potato. Pest development can vary between plant genotypes. The objective was to identify the preference of Tetranychus ludeni for Ipomoea batatas genotypes, from the germplasm bank at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Natural infestations of this mite were observed on 54 sweet potato genotypes in potted, in a greenhouse. Three mite-infested leafs of each genotype were collected and analyzed. The red mite showed different population density rate in genotypes. The BD 29 genotype was found to be highly susceptible, the BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 and Espanhola genotypes were moderately susceptible, and the others forty-nine genotypes showed low susceptibility to the mite.
Resumo Tetranychus ludeni danifica plantas de batata-doce. O desenvolvimento de pragas pode variar entre genótipos de plantas. O objetivo foi identificar a preferência de T. ludeni para genótipos de Ipomoea batatas do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Infestações naturais deste ácaro foram observadas em 54 genótipos de batata doce plantados em vasos e mantidos em estufa. Três folhas infestadas por ácaros, de cada genótipo, foram coletadas e analisadas. Tetranychus ludeni mostrou diferentes taxas de crescimento populacional entres os genótipos. O genótipo BD 29 foi altamente suscetível, os BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 e Espanhola foram moderadamente suscetíveis e os outros 49 genótipos mostraram baixa suscetibilidade ao ácaro.
ABSTRACT Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were built to predict coagulant (Model I) and alkalizer (Model II) dosages given raw and treated water parameters from a water clarifying process. Different ANN architectures were tested and optimal results were obtained with [10-10-10-01] and [08-12-12-01] nodes of input, hidden and output layers for Models I and II, respectively. Two algorithms based on GUM-S1weredevelopedto evaluate the artificial neural network parameter uncertainty and the coverage interval of model outputs. The results show that these algorithms can provide a better set of parameters for the ANN compared with the traditional training method. The present research provides a unique unifying view that considers neural networks and uncertainty analysis in a well-documented industrial case study.
The phytochemical investigation of the alkaloid-rich fraction obtained from the leaves of Guatteria pogonopus Mart. (Annonaceae) allowed the isolation and identification for the first time in this species of: (+)-nornuciferine (1), a mixture of 1 and (+)-anonaine (2), (+)-isocorydine (3), (+)-nuciferine (4), (+)-roemerine (5), (-)-tetrahydropseudocolumbamine (6), a mixture of 6, liriodenine (9) and lysicamine (10), a mixture of 1,2,9-trimethoxy-10-hydroxyaporphine (7) and bulbocapnine (8), 9, 10, and (+)-N-methyllindicarpine (11). Compounds 6, 7, 8, and 11 have not been previously reported in the family Annonaceae. Furthermore, the formerly synthetic 1,2,9-trimethoxyaporfin-10-ol (7) is described for the first time as a natural aporphine alkaloid herein. The chemical structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR as well as in comparison with data previously reported in the literature. The cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids was evaluated against tumor (B16-F10, HepG2, HL-60, and K562) and non-tumor (PBMC) cell lines. Alkaloid 1 presented significant activity against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 of 9.60 µmol L-1 while the mixture of 6, 9 and 10 displayed strong cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 3.41 an 8.50 µmol L-1, respectively.
ABSTRACT Ucides cordatus is a relevant fishery resource of Brazilian mangroves and requires legal normative to sustainable use based on stock assessment and management. This study evaluated some population parameters (structure, density, abundance, fishery potential and stock) of this crab species in Brazil Southeast (São Paulo, State), discussing the use of the results to delineate fishery management strategies. Density was monthly evaluated (September 1998 to August 1999), using five sample quadrats of 2x2 m. Density (ind.m-2) was indirectly estimated by counting the opened (with biogenic activity) and closed galleries, and contrasted with flooding level by tides using the vertical distribution of macroalgae in the base of trees. Density of U. cordatus ranges from 2 to 11 ind.m-2 (6±2 ind.m-2) and statistical difference occurred among monthly means (F=11.58; p=0.000). The relationship density vs. tidal flooding indicated a decrease of U. cordatus density in mangroves with higher levels of tidal flooding (r=−0.94; p=0.001). The total abundance of U. cordatus was estimated in 63.7 millions of crabs in 10.61 km2, with a reduction of 34.9% due to total mortality discount. Estimates like that are uncommon in literature, and could be used for fishery forecasts, allowing improvement by the introduction of new variables to be known in the future.
ABSTRACT Sewage sludge originated from the process of treatment of wastewater has become an environmental issue for three main reasons: contains pathogens, heavy metals and organic compounds that are harmful to the environmental and human health; high volumes are daily generated; and shortage of landfill sites for proper disposal. This research deals with the viability study of sewage sludge utilization, after calcination process, as mineral admixture in the production of concrete. High-performance concretes were produced with replacement content of 5% and 10% by weight of Portland cement with sewage sludge ash (SSA). The influence of this ash was analyzed through physical and mechanical tests. Analysis showed that the mixtures containing SSA have lower values of compressive strength than the reference. The results of absorptivity, porosity and accelerated penetration of chloride ions, presents that mixtures containing ash showed reductions compared to the reference. This indicates that SSA provided refinement of the pore structure, which was confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimetry test.
RESUMO O lodo de esgoto, proveniente do tratamento da fase líquida dos esgotos domésticos se tornou uma preocupação ambiental por três motivos principais: possui em sua composição patógenos, metais pesados e compostos orgânicos que são nocivos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente; grandes volumes são gerados diariamente; e escassez de espaços para dispô-lo de forma adequada. A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de aproveitamento deste resíduo, após processo de calcinação, como adição mineral na produção de concretos. Foram produzidos concretos de alto desempenho com teores de substituição de 5% e 10%, em massa, de cimento Portland por cinza de lodo de esgoto (CLE). Para avaliar a influência da cinza foram realizados ensaios físicos e mecânicos. Os resultados mostraram que as misturas contendo CLE apresentaram resistência à compressão inferior à referência. Em relação à absortividade, porosidade e penetração acelerada por íons cloreto, as misturas contendo cinza apresentaram reduções comparadas à referência, indicando que a CLE proporcionou refinamento da estrutura de poros comprovado pela porosimetria por intrusão de mercúrio.
ABSTRACT The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 2 billion people worldwide have already had contact with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 373 million have become chronic carriers. Hepatitis B is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to a large number of deaths annually. Both viral factors and the host immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical result of HBV infection. Many Brazilian cities, including the cities of the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo are located in regions with little health infrastructure. Our study performed an epidemiological analysis of cases of Hepatitis B in São Mateus, using methodology of Geographic Information System (GIS), aiming to raise the number of disease cases, establishing preventive measures to control the disease, improving the quality of life of people affected by this pathology. The city of São Mateus had the largest number of reported cases of hepatitis B northern region of Espírito Santo. The age group with the highest number of hepatitis B notifications was 20-49 years, mostly females. The major forms of contact with HBV in these cities were dental treatment, use of injectable medications, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners.
Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.
Resumo Plantas que podem ser uma fonte potencial de recursos alimentares (néctar floral, pólen e tecidos vegetais) para o bicudo do algodoeiro durante a entressafra foram avaliadas, considerando as condições ambientais prevalentes na região de Cerrado do Brasil Central. Primeiro, testamos a adequação nutricional dos recursos (pólen e néctar) fornecidos por oito espécies de plantas (erva-doce, margaridão, mamona, quiabo, hibisco, sorgo, feijão guandu e crotalária) como único recurso alimentar para a sobrevivência do inseto. Posteriormente, nós avaliamos se os recursos fornecidos pelas plantas selecionadas continuaram a serem explorados pelo bicudo na presença do algodoeiro, seu recurso alimentar principal. A longevidade média do bicudo do algodoeiro foi significativamente maior quando eles foram alimentados com flores de hibisco (166,6 ± 74,4) e quiabo (34,7 ± 28,9) do que quando alimentados com flores das outras seis espécies. Em seguida, a preferência do bicudo no uso de recursos foi comparada contrastando o quiabo e o hibisco com o algodão, em experimentos de dupla escolha. Os bicudos preferiram as plantas das três espécies na fase reprodutiva em relação àquelas em estádios vegetativos. Embora a preferência por plantas de algodão na fase reprodutiva tenha sido maior, os bicudos preferiram plantas em floração de quiabo e hibisco quando estas foram contrastadas com o algodão na fase vegetativa.
Abstract In recent decades, research has been developed to achieve efficient and economically viable materials for application in various industry sectors. The mesoporous materials of MCM-41 family are among the effective candidates due to the facility of synthesis and structure that favors a range of applications. The aim of this study was to present a critical analysis of the characteristics and properties of mesoporous materials MCM-41 type, focusing on the structural aspects. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of using commercial and alternative silica have been discussed. The commercial silica sources were TEOS and silica gel; the alternative silica sources were rice husk ash, quartz and glass powder. The analyzed materials were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET and TG. The results demonstrate the efficiency of alternative sources of silica in the synthesis of MCM-41, since the materials presented textural properties within the required standards. Therefore, they are able to be tested in the industry to replace the MCM-41 synthesized with commercial silica source.
Resumo Nas últimas décadas, pesquisas estão sendo desenvolvidas para obtenção de materiais eficientes e economicamente viáveis para aplicação em diversos setores da indústria. Os materiais mesoporosos da família MCM-41 estão entre os candidatos eficazes pela facilidade de síntese e estrutura que favorece uma gama de aplicações. O objetivo desse trabalho foi apresentar uma abordagem rítica das características e propriedades dos materiais mesoporosos do tipo MCM-41, enfocando nos aspectos estruturais. Além isso, foram discutidas as vantagens e desvantagens do uso de sílica comerciais e alternativas. As fontes de sílica comerciais analisadas foram sílica gel e TEOS; já as fontes de sílica alternativas foram cinza da casca de arroz, quartzo e pó de vidro. Os materiais analisados foram sintetizados pelo método hidrotérmico e caracterizados por DRX, FTIR, BET e TG. Os resultados apresentados comprovam a eficiência das fontes de sílica alternativas na síntese do MCM-41, pois os materiais apresentaram propriedades texturais dentro dos padrões exigidos. Dessa forma, eles estão aptos a serem testados na indústria em substituição aos MCM-41 sintetizados com fonte de sílica comercial.
A large range of variability marks the branching pattern of the axillary artery. The knowledge of the anatomical variations and this pattern is essential to diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, including surgery, of the axillary region. The aim of this study was to observe the different possible origins of circumflex humeral arteries and to measure the length and diameter of each vessel. In our study, 24 armpits from adult cadavers (fixed in tamponed formalin 10%) were dissected. The data were analyzed with a digital caliper and the results expressed as Mean ± SD. In majority of specimens, posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) arose from subscapular artery (SSA) (54.16%) and had an average diameter of 3.92±0.41 mm. The anterior circumflex humeral artery was a branch from axillary artery (AA) in the majority of the specimens (62.5%) with an average diameter of 1.83±0.68 mm. Circumflex humeral arteries can arise from SSA, deep brachial artery and AA. The result of this study is an interesting data for origin, length and diameter of these vessels, contributing to the knowledge of these variations occurrence.
Una amplia gama de variabilidad marca el patrón de ramificación de la arteria axilar. El conocimiento de las variaciones anatómicas de este patrón es esencial para enfoques de diagnóstico y terapéuticos, incluyendo la cirugía de la región axilar. El objetivo fue observar los diferentes orígenes posibles de arterias circunflejas humerales y medir la longitud y el diámetro de cada vaso. En el estudio se disecaron 24 axilas de cadáveres adultos (fijados en formalina tamponada al 10%). Los datos se analizaron con un calibrador digital y los resultados se expresaron como Media ± DS. En la mayoría de los especímenes, la arteria circunfleja humeral posterior surgió de la arteria subescapular (ASE) (54,16%) con un diámetro medio de 0,41±3,92 mm. En la mayoría de los especímenes (62,5%), la arteria circunfleja humeral anterior era una rama de la arteria axilar (AA) con un diámetro medio de 0,68±1,83 mm. Las arterias circunflejas humerales pueden surgir de la ASE, de la arteria braquial profunda y AA. El resultado de este estudio es un dato interesante para el origen, la longitud y el diámetro de los vasos, lo que contribuye al conocimiento de la ocurrencia de estas variaciones.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent and debilitating disease, affecting mainly women, especially in their second and third decades of life. Its most common incidence is in the axillary, inguinal, perianal and inframammary regions. Its complications include chronic fistulizing processes, with involvement of important adjacent structures, such as the sacrum and coccyx, the anal sphincter, urethra and great-caliber vessels, such as the groin vessels. The proportions of some cases of HS requiring extensive surgical procedures at several moments and the application of flaps and grafts, justify unusual cases reports, like this one. The authors present a case of extensive involvement of the perianal and gluteal regions, which required extended resection with flap in the first approach and fistulectomy in a second surgical moment, with good result for the patient.
A hidradenite supurativa (HS) é uma doença crônica, recorrente e debilitante, que afeta principalmente mulheres, sobretudo na segunda e terceira décadas de vida. Incide mais nas regiões axilar, inguinal, perianal e inframamária. Dentre suas complicações crônicas, são descritos processos fistulizantes com comprometimento de estruturas importantes, como o sacro e o cóccix, aparelho esfincteriano, uretra e vasos calibrosos, como os inguinais. As proporções de alguns casos de HS, exigindo intervenções alargadas, em vários tempos e com aplicação de retalhos e enxertos justificam relatos de casos que fogem da rotina, como o atual. Os autores apresentam um caso de comprometimento extenso da região glútea e perianal, que exigiu ressecção alargada com retalho e fistulectomia em um segundo tempo cirúrgico, com bom resultado para a paciente.
Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm in which both stromal and epithelial components meet the microscopic criteria for malignancy. Seventy-four cases have been reported in English-language literature to date. In this study, we describe the case of an 81-year-old male patient with parotid gland carcinosarcoma featuring foci of undifferentiated carcinoma and sarcomatous components such as chondrosarcoma, high-grade undifferentiated sarcoma, and malignant giant cell tumor. We reviewed and discussed this rare occurrence of salivary gland carcinosarcoma with areas of malignant giant cell tumor, which had been reported only twice previously.
O carcinossarcoma de glândulas salivares é uma neoplasia rara na qual os componentes epitelial e estromal apresentam critérios microscópicos de malignidade. Setenta e quatro casos já foram relatados até o momento. Neste relato, descrevemos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 81 anos, com carcinossarcoma da parótida, exibindo áreas de carcinoma indiferenciado e componente sarcomatoso constituído por condrossarcoma, sarcoma de alto grau e tumor de células gigantes. Revisamos e discutimos essa rara observação de carcinossarcoma de glândula salivar exibindo focos de tumor de células gigantes, descrito apenas em dois casos prévios.