OBJECTIVES: Bacterial and aseptic meningitis after neurosurgery can present similar clinical signs and symptoms. The aims of this study were to develop and test a molecular method to diagnose bacterial meningitis (BM) after neurosurgery. METHODS: A 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR-based strategy was developed using artificially inoculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) followed by sequencing. The method was tested using CSF samples from 43 patients who had undergone neurosurgery and were suspected to suffer from meningitis, and from 8 patients without neurosurgery or meningitis. Patients were classified into five groups, confirmed BM, probable BM, possible BM, unlikely BM, and no meningitis. RESULTS: Among the samples from the 51 patients, 21 samples (41%) were culture-negative and PCR-positive. Of these, 3 (14%) were probable BM, 4 (19%) were possible BM, 13 (62%) were unlikely BM, and 1 (5%) was meningitis negative. Enterobacterales, non-fermenters (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Granulicatella, Variovorax, and Enterococcus cecorum could be identified. In the group of patients with meningitis, a good agreement (3 of 4) was observed with the results of cultures, including the identification of species. CONCLUSION: Molecular methods may complement the diagnosis, guide treatment, and identify non-cultivable microorganisms. We suggest the association of methods for suspected cases of BM after neurosurgery, especially for instances in which the culture is negative.
Abstract Abstract: Trichiurus lepturus (Actinopterygii, Perciformes) is a commercially and economically important fish. A total of 60 specimens of this cutlassfish were collected of the coast the municipalities of Niterói and Cabo Frio, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish were measured, necropsied, filleted and had their organs investigated for digenetic trematodes. Taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric characters. The specimens of T. lepturus were parasitized with adult specimens of Lecithochirium monticellii. Parasite indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, range of infection, and site of infection of parasitic species were evaluated. Notes on the taxonomy of the parasite were also included. This is the first report of L. monticellii parasitizing T. lepturus in Brazil.
Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da hipóxia intermitente com um modelo de apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) sobre a expressão de uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), assim como sobre perfis glicêmicos e lipídicos, em camundongos C57BL. Métodos: Camundongos C57BL machos foram expostos a hipóxia intermitente ou hipóxia simulada (grupo controle) 8 h/dia durante 35 dias. A condição de hipóxia intermitente envolveu a exposição dos camundongos a uma atmosfera de 92% de N e 8% de CO2 por 30 s, com redução progressiva de fração de O2 inspirado até 8 ± 1%, seguida por exposição a ar ambiente por 30 s e repetições do ciclo (480 ciclos no período experimental de 8 h). Os pâncreas foram dissecados para isolar as ilhotas. Foi realizada PCR em tempo real utilizando o método TaqMan. Resultados: A expressão do mRNA da UCP2 nas ilhotas pancreáticas foi 20% maior no grupo controle que no grupo hipóxia (p = 0,11). A insulina sérica de jejum foi maior no grupo hipóxia do que no grupo controle (p = 0,01). O modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina indicou que, em comparação com os camundongos controle, aqueles expostos à hipóxia intermitente apresentaram 15% menor resistência à insulina (p = 0,09) e 21% maior função das células beta (p = 0,01). A coloração das ilhotas pancreáticas por imuno-histoquímica não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os grupos em termos da área ou da intensidade das células alfa e beta, marcadas por insulina e glucagon. Conclusões: Segundo nosso conhecimento, esta é a primeira descrição do efeito da hipóxia intermitente sobre a expressão da UCP2. Nossos achados sugerem que UCP2 regula a produção de insulina na AOS. Futuras investigações sobre o papel da UCP2 no controle glicêmico em pacientes com AOS são justificadas.
Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or to a sham procedure (normoxia group). The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 ± 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period). Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11). Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09) and 21% higher pancreatic β-cell function (p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of α- and β-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.