ABSTRACT Soils have different capacities to retain phosphorus (P). In seasonal flooded soils iron (Fe) oxides and hydroxides of poor crystallinity, increase with time, and could be the most important constituent in P adsorption, during the time the soils remain unflooded. The present paper had the objective to determine the maximum adsorption capacity of P (MACP), collected from five selected soils in lowland rice areas in the Santa Catarina state, to search for soil individual parameters that best correlates with maximum adsorption capacity of P (MACP). The rates of P used to determine the MACP were calculated based on the concentration of indigenous P in the soil. The sorption of P and the P in solution data were then fitted to the Langmuir sorption isotherm equations. The results obtained for the parameters 'a' and 'b' (binding energy and MACP, respectively) were correlated with selected soil parameters. The Langmuir equations adequately described P adsorption in the soils. The maximum sorption of P varied widely, ranging from 0.419 to 1,450 mg g_1, where the organic soil (OXs) presented very high MACP, which could lead to a less availability of the element to the plants. The coefficients of correlation showed a significant association between MACP and the following soil parameters: P indigenous, Fe oxides extracted with ammonium oxalate at pH 3.0 (Feo3) and pH 6.0 (Feo6), as well as the ratios Feo3/Fed and Feo6/Fed, suggersting that these chemical parameters can be utilized to characterize the P adsorption in these soils.
RESUMO Os solos têm capacidades diferentes de reter o fósforo (P). Em solos sazonalmente alagados, óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro (Fe) de baixa cristalinidade tornam-se predominantes com o passar do tempo, e poderão ser os componentes mais importantes na adsorção de P, durante o período em que o solo permanece drenado. Deste modo, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a capacidade máxima de adsorção de P (CMAP) de cinco solos catarinenses, utilizados no cultivo de arroz irrigado e buscar atributos que estimem a CMAP. As doses para a determinação da CMAP foram calculadas com base no P remanescente (P-rem), sendo os dados de P sorvido e P solução ajustados pela equação de Langmuir. Os valores obtidos para os parâmetros energia de ligação (a) e CMAP (b) foram submetidos a partir da análise de correlação com alguns atributos dos solos. O modelo de Langmuir adequou-se aos valores de P adsorvidos pelos solos. A maioria dos solos estudados apresentou CMAP elevada, variando de 0,419 a 1,450 mg g-1, onde o solo orgânico (OXs) apresentou CMAP muito alta, o que poderá acarretar em uma maior disponibilização do elemento para as plantas. Os coeficientes de correlação demonstraram haver associação significativa entre a CMAP e os parâmetros P-rem, óxidos de Fe extraído por oxalato de amônio a pH 3 (Feo3) e pH 6 (Feo6), bem como para as relações Feo3/Fed e Feo6/Fed, revelando que esses atributos podem ser utilizados para caracterizar a adsorção de P dos solos avaliados.
ABSTRACT: Fertilization of apple orchards with phosphorus (P) has received less attention than with nitrogen and potassium. In Brazil, the information about apple response to soil P addition is meager. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of annual soil P addition on quality and mineral composition of apple fruits. The experiment started in 2010, in a commercial orchard located in the São Joaquim, Southern of Brazil. The orchard consisted of ´Fuji Suprema’, planted in high-density on a Haplumbrept soil. Treatments consisted of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160kg ha-1 P2O5 applied annually starting in 2010 broadcast over the soil surface along the tree row. Evaluations were performed from 2012/2013 through 2014/2015 growing seasons. We harvested three samples from each experimental unit. One sample was cold stored in a controlled atmosphere chamber for six months; the others were immediately evaluated for firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity (TA), skin color, and the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the fruit flesh. Application of P to the soil affected only flesh firmness at harvest and TA after six months of storage in the 2012/2013 season, as well as firmness after six months of storage in the 2013/2014 season. In the 2014/2015 season, the addition of P reduced fruit color but only at harvest. Addition of P to the soil affected the levels of P in the fruit in the 2012/2013 season, as well as N and the N/Ca ratio of fruit in the 2014/2015 season. Overall, attributes related to fruit quality of cultivar Fuji Suprema were slightly affected by long-term annual addition of P to the soil.
RESUMO: A adubação com fósforo (P) em pomares de maçã tem recebido menos atenção que adubações com nitrogênio e potássio. No Brasil, as informações sobre a resposta da macieira a adição de P ao solo é escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito a longo prazo da adição anual de P ao solo na qualidade e composição mineral de maçãs. O experimento iniciou em 2010, num pomar comercial localizado no município de São Joaquim, Sul do Brasil, com a cultivar ‘Fuji Suprema’, instalado em alta densidade (aproximadamente 2.000 plantas ha-1) em um solo Haplumbrept. Os tratamentos consistiram de 0, 40, 80, 120 e 160kg ha-1 P2O5 aplicados anualmente a partir de 2010, na superfície do solo ao longo da fileira das árvores. As avaliações foram realizadas nas estações de crescimento de 2012/2013 até 2014/2015. Três amostras de 10 frutos de cada unidade experimental foram colhidas. Uma amostra foi armazenada em uma câmara fria de atmosfera controlada por seis meses; os outros foram imediatamente avaliados quanto à firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável (AT), cor da epiderme e as concentrações de N, P, K, Ca e Mg na polpa dos frutos. A aplicação de P ao solo afetou apenas a firmeza de polpa na colheita e AT após seis meses de armazenamento na safra 2012/2013, bem como a firmeza após seis meses de armazenamento na safra 2013/2014. Na safra 2014/2015, a adição de P reduziu a cor dos frutos, mas apenas na colheita. A adição de P ao solo afetou os níveis de P nos frutos da safra 2012/2013, bem como N e a relação N / Ca de frutas na safra 2014/2015. Em geral, os atributos relacionados à qualidade dos frutos da cultivar Fuji Suprema foram ligeiramente afetados pela adição anual prolongada de P ao solo.
ABSTRACT Chemical speciation of the soil solution is an important tool to identify Al species related to phytotoxicity. In some Brazilian acid soils, the Al extractable by the KCl 1.0 mol L -1 solution (Al-KCl) exceeds 10 cmol c kg -1 and even then, in some situations, it does not cause toxicity to the plants. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between these high concentrations of Al-KCl found in some Brazilian acid soils and the activity of the different Al chemical species in the soil solution, as well as the response of soybean and corn plants to lime application. Subsurface horizon (B) samples of five soils were collected in four states of Brazil (AC, PE, RS, and SC) from areas that had never been cultivated. The samples were then given increasing rates of limestone, equivalent to that required to neutralize 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.00 times the contents of H+Al and were incubated for 98 days. After that period, the soils were fertilized and planted to soybean and corn in the greenhouse for 60 and 45 days, respectively, in 2015. The experimental units consisted of 8 L pots, filled with 5 kg of soil (dry basis). After each crop, the plants and soil samples were collected to determine the leaf, stem, and root dry matter, and chemical composition. In the soil solution, cations and anions, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved organic carbon were quantified. The distribution of the Al species was evaluated using the program Minteq. Free Al (Al 3+ ) was the species found in highest proportion in treatments without limestone, in all soils. Application at the lowest limestone rate, equivalent to 25 % of that required for H+Al neutralization, was sufficient to decrease Al activity in the soil solution to levels considered non-toxic to plants in four of the five soils. High levels of Al-KCl are not related to manifestation of toxicity and to Al 3+ activity in the solution of Hapludult (Acre profile 9; AC9) and Hapludult (Rosario do Sul; RS) since dry matter (DM) production in these soils was little influenced by liming, unlike what occurred in the Hapludult (Pernambuco; PE), Humudepts (Bom Retiro; BR), and Kandiudox (Curitibanos; CB) soils, in which Al-KCl contents were related to Al activity in the solution and to DM production of the plants grown in them.
ABSTRACT Flesh browning is a physiological disorder that occurs in ‘Fuji’ apples during storage, which causes considerable postharvest losses of fruit produced in Southern Brazil. This work aimed to assess the mineral attributes [Ca; Mg and K contents and the Mg/Ca; K/Ca and (K + Mg)/Ca ratios] associated with the flesh browning disorder incidence, as well as to identify which of these mineral attributes better discriminate the differences in the degree of susceptibility to flesh browning disorder in ‘Fuji’ apples stored under controlled atmosphere (CA; 1.2 kPa O2 + 2.0 kPa CO2 and 1.2 kPa O2 + < 0.5 kPa CO2; 0.5 ± 0.1 °C and 96 ± 2% RH, during an 8-month period). Apples from 2 orchards in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, 3 orchards in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, and 3 orchards in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul were used. The fruit with flesh browning disorder has lower levels of Ca and a higher Mg/Ca ratio when compared to the fruit without flesh browning. The Mg and K contents were not related to the physiological disorder. The canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) showed that the isolated Ca content better discriminated the fruit with and without flesh browning disorder. ‘Fuji’ apples with Ca contents < 80 mg∙kg−1 in the flesh present a greater risk of developing this disorder in the Southern Brazil production region.
Abstract The objective of this work was to assess the risk of phosphorus losses by runoff through an index based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), in cropland soils of Southern Brazil. Sixty-five highly representative cropland soils from the region were evaluated. Three labile P forms were measured (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and ammonium oxalate), and four P sorption indexes were tested (phosphorus single sorption point and Fe+Al determined with the three extractors). Water-extractable P (WEP) was used as an index of P susceptibility to losses by surface runoff. The DPS was determined from the ratio between labile P and each sorption index. DPS values obtained from the ratio between Mehlich-1 P and the single P sorption point ranged from 1 to 25%, whereas those from Mehlich-1 P and Fe+Al (ammonium oxalate) ranged from 1 to 55%. All DPS types were highly correlated with WEP. From a practical stand point, the DPS obtained with both P and Fe+Al extracted with Mehlich-1 can be used to estimate the risk of P losses by runoff in soils of Southern Brazil.
Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o risco de perdas de fósforo por escorrimento superficial por meio de um índice baseado no o grau de saturação de P (GSP) no solo, em solos agrícolas do Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 65 solos agrícolas representativos da região. Três formas lábeis de P foram medidas (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 e oxalato de amônio), e quatro índices de adsorção de P foram testados (adsorção de P em único ponto e Fe+Al obtido com os três extratores). O P extraível em água (PEA) foi utilizado como índice de suscetibilidade do P a perdas por escoamento superficial. O GSP foi obtido a partir do quociente entre a forma lábil de P e cada índice de adsorção. Os valores do GSP obtidos a partir do quociente entre P Mehlich-1 e a adsorção de P em único ponto variaram de 1 a 25%, enquanto os entre P Mehlich-1 e Fe+Al (oxalato de amônio) variaram de 1 a 55%. Todos os tipos de GSP estiveram altamente correlacionados ao PEA. Do ponto de vista de uso prático, o GSP obtido com P e Fe+Al extraídos com Mehlich-1 pode ser usado para estimar o risco de perda de P por escorrimento superficial em solos do Sul do Brasil.
ABSTRACT In no-tillage (NT) systems, there is no plowed layer since the soil is not tilled. Thus, the soil layer for fertility evaluation can be defined as the one in which the fertility indices are affected by the surface application of lime and fertilizers and soil properties have the closest relationship with crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate soil layer under long-term NT for sampling for fertility evaluation in the South-Central region of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 99 field experiments of crop rotations were performed, including soybean, corn, barley, wheat, and white oat, all on Oxisols (Hapludox). Despite the surface application, lime and fertilizers increased base saturation (V) and available K to a depth of 0.20 m. The relationship with crop yields was high for V and low for available K for both soil layers (0.00-0.10 and 0.00-0.20 m); for P, however, the relationships with soybean and corn yields were strongest in the 0.00-0.20 m layer. Thus, considering the soil layer fertilized by the surface application of lime and potassium fertilizers and the highest relationship of soil P contents with the yield of the main crops of the crop rotation, the 0.00-0.20 m layer is the most appropriate for soil fertility evaluation under long-term no-tillage systems.
ABSTRACT Quantification of ammonia volatilization after addition of animal residues and nitrogen (N) mineral fertilizers to the soil is important for N management in fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a urease inhibitor to N fertilizers to minimize ammonia losses following soil application. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory with samples of a Brazilian Oxisol containing 790 g kg-1 clay and 23 g kg-1 organic matter. Treatments consisted of addition of poultry litter (PL), organic mineral fertilizer (OMF) and urea to the soil, with and without the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), plus a control with no fertilizer. We applied the fertilizers over the soil surface, with no soil incorporation, at a rate of 200 mg kg-1 N. Experimental units consisted of PVC tubes with a diameter of 0.15 m, containing 1.0 kg of soil (dry basis). Ammonia volatilization was measured for 56 days following fertilizer application to the soil using sponge discs impregnated with phosphoric acid and glycerin, which were fitted inside the tubes 0.15 m above the soil surface. Ammonia volatilization peaks varied according to the fertilizer, and most of them occurred in the first 15 days following application to the soil. Total ammonia volatilized from the soil treated with PL or OMF had no influence on the urease inhibitor, probably because the losses were small, attaining a maximum of 2.5 and 9 % of the total N applied, respectively. In the treatment that received urea, NBPT delayed the peak of volatilization by three weeks and decreased the loss of ammonia from 22 to 9 % of the N applied. Use of urease inhibitor does not always decrease ammonia volatilization, especially when mixed with fertilizers in which urea is not the only source of N.
ABSTRACT Management of boron fertilization depends on the magnitude of B leaching in the soil profile, which varies proportionally with the concentration of B in the soil solution, which, in turn, decreases as the soil pH increases due to the higher sorption of B on soil solid surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of liming and rates of B applied to the soil on B leaching. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory in 2012, and treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two rates of liming (without and with lime to raise the soil pH to 6.0) and five rates of B (0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg kg-1, as boric acid). A Typic Rhodudalf was used, containing 790 g kg-1 clay and 23 g kg-1 organic matter; the pH(H2O) was 4.6. Experimental units were composed of PVC leaching columns (0.10 m in diameter) containing 1.42 kg of soil (dry base). Boron was manually mixed with the top 0.15 m of the soil. After that, every seven days for 15 weeks, 300 mL of distilled water were added to the top of each column. In the percolated solution, both the volume and concentration of B were measured. Leaching of B decreased with increased soil pH and, averaged across the B rates applied, was 58 % higher from unlimed (pH 4.6) than from limed (pH 6.6) samples as a result of the increase in B sorption with higher soil pH. In spite of its high vertical mobility, the residual effect of B was high in this oxisol, mainly in the limed samples where 80 % of B applied at the two highest rates remained in the soil, even after 15 water percolations. Total recovery of applied B, including leached B plus B extracted from the soil after all percolations, was less than 50 %, showing that not all sorbed B was quantified by the hot water extraction method.
ABSTRACT Determining the chemical composition of poultry litter is important in order to apply this waste as soil fertilizer without causing negative environmental impacts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the average and variability of some chemical parameters of 165 samples of poultry litter produced from confined animal production facilities located in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil. Samples of approximately 5.0 L were collected on 20 points from the truck at the time the material was unloaded into the application sites. Subsequently, they were oven-dried at 65 °C and analyzed. Values of pH in water, dry matter, N, P and K were determined in all samples; N soluble in water (soluble-N), ammonium (NH+4-N) and nitrate (NO−3-N) were quantified in 50 samples; organic carbon (organic-C) and C/N ratio were assessed in 20 samples. There was large variation in the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O among samples, with the average accounting for 2.2, 3.0 and 2.9 %, respectively; these nutrients correlated with each other. More than 90 % of the N was in the organic form, into which the fraction soluble in water accounted for 21.8 % of the total. Inorganic N was predominantly in the form of ammonium (NH+4-N), and nitrate (NO−3-N) was absent. Average dry matter was 64.3 %, with a median of 66.5 %; pH was always alkaline (average of 7.8), with a low variation coefficient (7.4 %), and was negatively correlated with NH+4-N. The average of organic C and C/N ratio in dry matter was 28.3 % and 11.2, respectively, which results in the immediate release of N to the soil, with no microorganism immobilization. The chemical composition of poultry litters produced in confined systems in Southern Brazil is widely variable. Thus, to be successfully used as soil fertilizer, it is essential to know their composition, mainly in terms of moisture N, P2O5 and K2O contents.
ABSTRACT Nutrient content in soil solution may vary in response to the applied amount of pig slurry (PS). Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient content in soil solution and its relationship to nutritional status and yield of corn under 12 years of annual fertilization with increasing doses of PS, soluble mineral fertilizer (MF) and PS combined with MF. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Typic Hapludox). The treatments consisted of pig slurry at annual rates of 50 and 100 m3 ha-1 (PS50 and PS100), soluble mineral fertilizer (MF), and pig slurry at a rate of 25 m3 ha-1 complemented with mineral fertilizer (PS25 + MF), distributed in a randomized block design. Soil solution was sampled at two depths, 0.40 and 0.80 m, on six dates after the fertilizer applications. The nitrate (NO−3-N) and K levels in the soil solution were measured 40, 108 and 135 days after the last application of fertilizer (DAAF), being subsequently correlated with corn yield. PS50 provide contents of NO−3-N, P and K to the soil solution similar to those supplied by MF or PS25+MF. The critical limit of 10 mg L-1 NO−3-N in the soil solution was exceeded on 108, 135 and 230 DAAF, at rates of 100 and 50 m3 ha1 of PS and on 230 DAAF when using MF.
The soils used to grow irrigated rice in the State of Santa Catarina have different mineralogical and chemical characteristics from the soils used for calibration studies of the Mehlich-1 extractant, for estimating soil phosphorus availability to plants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, Resin, Olsen and EDTA extractants in predicting P availability to flood irrigated rice in soils of State of Santa Catarina. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in 2014 with five soils collected from croplands previously planted to rice. Four rates of P were applied to the soils, corresponding to 0, ¼, ½, and 1.0 times the amount of P needed to reach 0.2 mg L-1 P in the soil solution (based on the maximum P adsorption capacity of each soil). Experimental units consisted of 8.0 L pots containing 3.5 kg of soil (dry base). Triplicates of each treatment were arranged in a completely randomized experimental design. Five days after mixing P with the soils, soil samples were collected to quantify P by five chemical methods (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, Resin, Olsen, and EDTA). The pots were then flooded and cultivated with six rice seedlings for 46 days. Shoot dry matter and P uptake were quantified. Linear correlations between P extracted from the soils and P taken up by the plants were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemical methods in predicting P availability. The amount of P taken up by rice plants varied according to soil type and increased with increases in the P rate. The EDTA method recovered the highest amount of P from the soils relative to the amount applied, followed by Olsen. Soil P extracted by EDTA and Mehlich-3 best correlated with the amount of P uptake by rice plants. Arranging soils according to their characteristics related to P adsorption improves the effectiveness of all methods in predicting P availability to rice cultivated in flood irrigated soils.
Os solos cultivados com arroz irrigado no Estado de Santa Catarina apresentam características mineralógicas e químicas distintas dos solos utilizados nos estudos de calibração do extrator Mehlich-1, para estimar a disponibilidade de fósforo do solo para as plantas. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos extratores Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, Resina em lâminas, Olsen e EDTA na predição da disponibilidade P para plantas de arroz cultivadas em sistema de alagamento em solos representativos de lavouras orizícolas do Estado de Santa Catarina. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com cinco solos oriundos de várias lavouras orizícolas, em 2014. Foram adicionados aos solos quatro concentrações de P, correspondendo a 0, ¼, ½ e 1,0 vez a quantidade de P para atingir 0,2 mg L-1 de P na solução do solo (com base na capacidade de adsorção de cada solo). Foram usadas três repetições por tratamento, dispostas no delineamento completamente casualizado. Após cinco dias da adição dos níveis de P, as unidades experimentais constituídas por vasos de 8 L contendo 3,5 kg de solo seco foram amostradas para determinar o P disponível do solo por cinco métodos químicos. Na sequência, essas foram alagadas e cultivadas com seis plantas de arroz por 46 dias, quando se quantificaram a massa de matéria seca e o P absorvido pela parte aérea das plantas. A eficácia dos métodos Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, Resina em lâminas, Olsen e EDTA foi avaliada por correlação linear entre a quantidade de P extraída dos solos e a quantidade absorvida pelas plantas. A quantidade de P absorvida pelas plantas de arroz aumentou com o acréscimo das doses de P aplicadas, variando com o tipo de solo. A maior recuperação do P adicionado aos solos foi obtida pelo extrator EDTA, seguido pelo Olsen. O P extraído pelo EDTA e Mehlich-3 evidenciou melhor correlação com quantidade de P absorvida pelo arroz. O agrupamento dos solos segundo características relacionadas à adsorção de P no solo melhora a eficiência de todos os métodos em predizer a disponibilidade de P em solos cultivados com arroz no sistema de inundação.
Phosphorus has low mobility in the soil. Thus, its concentration near the granules of phosphate fertilizers in the soil is very high, which may affect P availability and the soil chemical composition in these regions. This study was carried out to evaluate the soil chemical composition near the granules of calcium or ammonium phosphates and P mobility in two Brazilian acid soils. The experiment was carried out in 2009 and treatments consisted of a combination of triple superphosphate (TSP) or diammonium phosphate (DAP) with KCl, in addition to a control with only KCl. Each experimental unit was constituted by PVC columns (12 cm long and 10 cm in diameter), subsequently filled with 1.20 kg of soil (dry base). The amount of TSP, DAP and KCl applied to each experimental unit was 10.47, 9.56 and 7.33 g respectively, which, considering a soil volume of 2 x 10³ m³, would be equivalent to 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 200 kg ha-1 of K2O. Forty-five days after fertilizers application the soil volume in each centimeter distant from the granules was chemically quantified. For P, nine consecutive extractions were performed using the methods of Mehlich-1 and anion exchangeable resin (AER). DAP increased pH and decreased exchangeable Al near the granules while SFT increased both, Ca and Mg. The amount of cumulative P extracted varied with phosphate fertilizers, distance from the granules, soil type and extraction method. In the 0 to 1.0 cm layer distant from the granules TSP gave the highest P values, that reached up to 10,276 mg dm-3; in the two following layers (1.0 to 2,0 and 2.0 to 3.0 cm), this occurred with DAP. Mehlich-1 always quantified more P than AER in the soil near the phosphate fertilizers. The movement of P in both soils occurred until the fourth centimeter away from the granules and the soil chemical composition in these regions varied with the phosphate fertilizer, soil type, extraction method and distance from the granules, which needs to be better studied.
O P tem baixa mobilidade no solo resultando em altas concentrações nas regiões adjacentes aos grânulos de fertilizantes fosfatados. Isso pode interferir na disponibilidade de P e na composição química do solo nesses locais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição química do solo e a mobilidade de P nas adjacências de regiões fertilizadas com fosfatos de amônio ou de cálcio, em solos ácidos. Este trabalho foi realizado em 2009, com amostras de dois solos catarinenses. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de superfosfato triplo (SFT) ou de fosfato diamônico (DAP) com KCl, além de um controle somente com KCl. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por colunas de PVC com 10,0 cm de diâmetro e 12,0 cm de comprimento, preenchidas com 1,60 kg de solo (base úmida). Foram aplicadas quantidades equivalentes a 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e de K2O, considerando a área de contato superficial de solo de 10(4) m². Tentando simular a aplicação localizada de fertilizantes, essas quantidades foram estipuladas para contatarem com 357 m² de solo, tendo sido aplicadas 10,47; 9,56; e 7,33 g por coluna de SFT, DAP e KCl respectivamente, numa área de contato de 0,00785 m². Quarenta e cinco dias após a aplicação dos fertilizantes, as colunas foram desmontadas e o solo foi analisado a cada centímetro distante do local de aplicação dos grânulos. O P foi quantificado pelos métodos Mehlich-1 e da resina trocadora de ânions (RTA), numa sequencia de nove extrações cumulativas. O DAP aumentou o pH e diminuiu o Al nas adjacências dos grânulos, porém o SFT aumentou Ca e Mg. A quantidade cumulativa extraída de P variou com o tipo de adubo fosfatado, a distância dos grânulos, o tipo de solo e o método de extração. Na camada distante até 1,0 cm dos adubos, o SFT proporcionou os maiores valores de P, que chegaram a atingir 10.276 mg dm-3; nas duas camadas seguintes (1,0-2,0 e 2,0-3,0 cm), isso normalmente ocorreu com o DAP. O Mehlich-1 quantificou sempre mais P do que a RTA nas adjacências dos fertilizantes fosfatados. A movimentação do P nos dois solos ocorreu até o quarto centímetro distante do local de aplicação dos adubos, e a composição química nessas adjacências variou com o fertilizante fosfatado, o tipo de solo, o método de extração e a distância dos grânulos, mas necessita ser mais bem estudada.
Boron (B) is normally applied at Brazilian apple orchards, but without any regional experimental support. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forms of B addition on apple yield and quality. The experiment was set up in São Joaquim, Southern of Brazil, using two apple cultivars (Imperial Gala and Fuji Suprema). Treatments consisted of a factorial combination of rates of B applied to the soil, biannually, and time of B sprayed to the plants, annually, from 2002. It was used a randomized block with treatments arranged in a split-plot design. Boron sprays were allocated in the main plots (only water or acid boric solutions applied at 0.3% at the pink stage or at 0.6% just after harvest) and rates of soil B (0, 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha-1 of B as borax) were allocated in the split-plots. Determinations were performed in the seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Application of B to the soil was more effective than foliar B sprays for increasing B concentration inthe fruits, leaves and in the soil, however it did not affect any of the fruit attributes related to the physiological quality, regardless of cultivar. Foliar B sprays decreased starch content and titratable acidity, and did not affect soluble solids content and flesh firmness. Sprays of B applied at bloom decreased pollen grain germination in 'Imperial Gala' and fruit set in 'Fuji Suprema'. Fruit yield was not affected by the application of B, regardless of time, form or rate in any cultivar. Thus, there is no need to apply B in orchards containing these cultivars when grown in high organic matter soils in order to increase yield or fruit quality.
O boro (B) é aplicado na maioria dos pomares brasileiros de maçã, porém sem fundamentação experimental regional. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de formas, doses e épocas de aplicação de B no rendimento e na qualidade de maçãs. O experimento foi instalado em São Joaquim-SC, em 2002, com as cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema conduzidas em áreas diferentes, cujas avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os tratamentos consistiram em um fatorial envolvendo doses de B aplicadas ao solo, a cada dois anos, e épocas de pulverização na planta, feitas anualmente. Utilizou-se de delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, cujos tratamentos foram arranjados em parcelas subdividas: na parcela principal, foram alocadas as épocas de aplicação foliar de ácido bórico (sem pulverização, 0,3% pulverizado na fase de botão rosado e 0,6% em pós-colheita) e nas subparcelas, as doses de bórax no solo (0; 2,5 e 5,0 kg ha-1 de B). A aplicação de B no solo foi mais eficiente do que a pulverização foliar para aumentar o teor de B na polpa, na folha e no solo; no entanto, não afetou nenhum dos atributos relacionados com a qualidade dos frutos, nas duas cultivares. A pulverização com B diminuiu o teor de amido e a acidez titulável, e não afetou o teor de sólidos solúveis e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos. A pulverização na floração diminuiu a germinação de grãos de pólen na cultivar Imperial Gala e a frutificação efetiva na cultivar Fuji Suprema. O rendimento de frutos não foi afetado pela adição de B, independentemente da época, da forma de aplicação ou dose, nas duas cultivares. Assim, não há necessidade de aplicar B nessas cultivares em pomares cultivados em solos com altos teores de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de incrementar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos.
Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.
A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos naturais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel.
Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N) and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept) soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash); incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days before, the concentration of N-NH4+ in the soil was 28 and 54 mg kg-1, equivalent to an accumulation of 42 and 81 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. There was formation of acetic acid in which toxic concentrations were reached (7.2 mmol L-1) on the 15th day of flooding only for the treatment with straw incorporated on the day of flooding. The pH of the soil solution of all the treatments increased after flooding and this increase was faster in the treatments with incorporation of straw, followed by the ash treatment and then the control. After 60 days of flooding, however, the pH values were around 6.5 for all treatments, except for the control, which reached a pH of 6.3. Rice straw should be incorporated into the soil at least 30 days before flooding; otherwise, it may immobilize part of the mineral N and produce acetic acid in concentrations toxic to rice seedlings.
A incorporação da palha do arroz em data próxima ao alagamento do solo para a semeadura do arroz, em sistema de cultivo pré-germinado, provoca a imobilização do nitrogênio (N) mineral e favorece a produção de ácido acético em níveis tóxicos às plântulas dessa cultura, interferindo negativamente na produção de grãos. Este estudo teve por objetivos avaliar a formação de ácidos orgânicos e as variações no pH da solução do solo e quantificar a concentração de N mineral no solo, em razão de diferentes épocas de incorporação da palha do arroz ou da cinza da queima da palha, antes do alagamento do solo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se um Cambissolo Háplico. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha (sem palha nem cinza); incorporação da cinza da queima da palha; palha do arroz incorporada em solo drenado 60 dias antes do alagamento; palha incorporada 30 dias antes; palha incorporada 15 dias antes; palha incorporada no dia do alagamento. As unidades experimentais foram baldes plásticos com 6,0 kg de solo. A partir do alagamento, os baldes permaneceram inundados durante todo o período experimental, sem a presença de plantas de arroz. As amostras de solo foram coletadas imediatamente antes do alagamento e a cada sete dias após, até a 13ª semana para a determinação do N mineral - amônio (NH4+) e nitrato (NO3-). O pH da solução do solo e a concentração de ácidos orgânicos (acético, propiônico e butírico) foram determinados. Todo o nitrato existente no solo, antes do alagamento, foi perdido antes de duas semanas de alagamento, em todos os tratamentos. Houve um comportamento sigmoidal na formação de NH4+ em todos os tratamentos, ou seja, a concentração de amônio começou a aumentar rapidamente; após o alagamento decresceu levemente; e voltou a aumentar novamente. Aos 91 dias de alagamento, a concentração de NH4+ no solo era 56 mg kg-1 no tratamento testemunha, 72 mg kg-1 no tratamento 60 dias de incorporação da palha, 73 mg kg-1 no tratamento de 30 dias e 53 mg kg-1 quando a cinza foi incorporada ao solo. Essa concentração de amônio no solo corresponde a 84, 108, 110 e 80 kg ha-1 N-NH4+, respectivamente. Quando a palha foi incorporada no dia do alagamento ou 15 dias antes, a concentração de amônio era 28 e 54 mg kg-1, equivalente a um acúmulo de 42 e 81 kg ha-1 N-NH4+, respectivamente. Houve a formação de ácido acético, que alcançou nível tóxico às plântulas (7,2 mmol L-1) no 15º dia após o alagamento, apenas no tratamento em que a palha foi incorporada ao solo no dia do alagamento. O pH da solução do solo de todos os tratamentos aumentou após o alagamento, sendo mais rápido nos tratamentos em que a palha foi incorporada ao solo, seguido pela cinza e depois pela testemunha. Aos 60 dias de alagamento, todavia, o pH alcançou 6,5 em todos os tratamentos, exceto na testemunha que atingiu pH 6,3. A incorporação da palha do arroz deve ser realizada com pelo menos 30 dias de antecedência ao alagamento, caso contrário pode imobilizar parte do N e proporcionar a formação de ácido acético em concentrações tóxicas às plântulas de arroz.