OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chest X-rays of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine whether the extent of radiographic lesions correlates with bacteriological parameters. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study, we evaluated chest X-rays, as well as AFB detection by smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, initially and during the first two months of treatment, in 800 male patients hospitalized between 1995 and the present at a 250-bed hospital in northwestern Turkey. RESULTS: The initial mean ESR was 58 ± 37 mm/h. Initial sputum smears and cultures were positive in 83.8% and 89.5% of the patients, respectively. After the first month of treatment, the proportion of patients with positive sputum culture was higher among those with cavitary tuberculosis than among those with non-cavitary tuberculosis (53.7% vs. 37.7%, p < 0.001). The number of affected zones was not correlated with age, symptom duration, contact with an active tuberculosis patient, or concomitant diabetes (p > 0.05 for all) but was positively correlated with the ESR (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). During the first and second months of treatment, conversion to smear-negative status was less common in patients with bilateral involvement than in those with unilateral involvement (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 for months 1 and 2, respectively). Disease extent did not correlate with age, symptom duration, contact with an active tuberculosis patient, or concomitant diabetes but did correlate with delayed bacteriological recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Chest X-ray and bacteriology are valuable tools for the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis
OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiografias de tórax de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar e determinar se a extensão das lesões radiográficas correlaciona-se com os parâmetros bacteriológicos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo descritivo e retrospectivo; foram avaliadas radiografias de tórax, baciloscopias para BAAR e culturas de escarro para Mycobacterium tuberculosis no momento basal e durante os dois primeiros meses de tratamento. A amostra foi composta por 800 pacientes masculinos internados entre 1995 até o presente em um hospital com 250 leitos no noroeste da Turquia. RESULTADOS: A VHS média inicial foi de 58 ± 37 mm/h. Inicialmente, a baciloscopia e as culturas de escarro tiveram resultado positivo em 83,8% e em 89,5% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Após o primeiro mês do tratamento, a proporção de culturas positivas foi maior nos pacientes com doença cavitária do que naqueles sem doença cavitária (53,7% vs. 37,7%; p < 0,001). Não houve correlação do número de zonas afetadas com idade, duração de sintomas, contato com paciente com tuberculose ativa, diabetes concomitante (p > 0.05 para todos), mas houve correlação positiva com VHS (r = 0,23, p < 0,001). Durante o primeiro e o segundo mês de tratamento, a negativação da baciloscopia foi menos frequente nos pacientes com comprometimento bilateral do que naqueles com comprometimento unilateral (p < 0,001 e p = 0,002 para os meses 1 e 2, respectivamente). A extensão da doença não se correlacionou com idade, duração dos sintomas, contato com paciente com tuberculose ativa e diabetes concomitante, mas sim com a recuperação bacteriológica atrasada. CONCLUSÕES: Radiografias de tórax e bacteriologia são ferramentas valiosas na avaliação de tuberculose pulmonar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the separate and combined effects of tobacco and biomass smoke exposure on pulmonary histopathology in rats. INTRODUCTION: In addition to smoking, indoor pollution in developing countries contributes to the development of respiratory diseases. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group (Group I, no exposure to tobacco or biomass smoke), exposed to tobacco smoke (Group II), exposed to biomass smoke (Group III), and combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV). After six months the rats in all four groups were sacrificed. Lung tissue samples were examined under light microscopy. The severity of pathological changes was scored. RESULTS: Group II differed from Group I in all histopathological alterations except intraparenchymal vascular thrombosis. There was no statistically significant difference in histopathological changes between the subjects exposed exclusively to tobacco smoke (Group II) and those with combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV). The histopathological changes observed in Group IV were found to be more severe than those in subjects exposed exclusively to biomass smoke (Group III). DISCUSSION: Chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke caused an increase in severity and types of lung injury. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cigarette smoke caused serious damage to the respiratory system, particularly with concomitant exposure to biomass smoke.