ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare genetic disease. Understanding its clinical findings contributes to better management of clinical conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and karyotypic characteristics of patients diagnosed with TS at two reference services for clinical genetics in southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in two clinical genetics services in Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil. METHODS: The sample consisted of 59 patients with TS diagnosed from 1993 to 2019. A review of their medical records was performed and a standard protocol was filled out. RESULTS: The average age of the patients at diagnosis was 15.9 years, and 40.7% were over 13 years old. The largest proportion of them (42.4%) had been referred from an endocrinology department and their constitution was 45,X (40.7%). The most common clinical findings were short stature (85.7%), hypoplastic/ hyperconvex nails (61.2%), low posterior hairline (52.1%) and cubitus valgus (45.8%). There was no difference regarding the presence of short stature (P = 0.5943), number of dysmorphia (P = 0.143), anatomical regions affected and malformations identified through imaging examinations (P = 1.0000), regarding the presence or absence of 45,X constitution. Only 6% of the patients had used growth hormone and 43%, estrogen. CONCLUSION: We found that, in general, patients with TS were being diagnosed late. This has important implications for their treatment. In addition, only a small proportion of the patients were undergoing further examination or evaluation, which appeared to be leading to underdiagnosis of many abnormalities.
ABSTRACT. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the productive performance of European quails (Coturnix coturnix) in the production phase, fed with diets containing different levels of digestible lysine. A total of 175 female quails, aged 65 days, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates per treatment. The animals were housed in 25 metal cages, and each cage represented an experimental parcel, with seven birds per parcel. The birds were fed the experimental rations containing 1.177, 1.217, 1.317, 1.417, and 1.517% digestible lysine. The parameters evaluated were: laying rate, mass of eggs produced, feed intake in the period, lysine intake, feed conversion per dozen and per mass. Significant differences were observed for posture rate with quadratic behavior, which indicated higher production for the level of 1.23% of digestible lysine. There was an increasing linear behavior for the feed and lysine intake, and for conversion feed per dozen and by mass, we observed quadratic behaviors. This indicates better feed conversion index when the optimal inclusion level was 1.33% and 1.404% of digestible lysine in the diet, respectively. The requirement of digestible lysine in diets for European quails is 1.404%, which corresponds to a daily intake of 421.20 milligrams of digestible lysine.
Abstract In 2008, 270 wild birds from aquatic environments were found dead or debilitated on the banks of smaller lakes that had been formed due to the decrease in the level of the holding lake of the Sobradinho Dam located on the São Francisco River in the Caatinga of Bahia, Brazil. The outbreak occurred months after the dam’s partial drainage, with the formation of puddles that accumulated decomposing organic material. Amongst the 270 individuals examined and/or found dead, the majority (50%) of the birds found belonged to the Anatidae family. The debilitated birds presented neurological clinical signs including lack of motor coordination, weakness, grave flaccid paralysis in the legs, wings, neck and eyelids, diarrhea, and dyspnea. Tissue samples of the birds were collected, as were water samples and samples of the substrate of the lakes. Zoonotic arboviroses or heavy metals were not detected. Analyses of liver and digestive tract content samples through bioassay and serum neutralization in mice revealed the presence of type C botulinic toxin in the viscerae samples, and type D in sediment samples. According to our knowledge, this is the first record of an outbreak of botulism in wild birds in natural conditions in Brazil.
ABSTRACT The excessive sun exposure, coupled with lack of sun protection represents one of the biggest risks to the occurrence of skin cancer and photoaging. Recent strategies for photoprotection have included the incorporation of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, into sunscreens, and the oral administration of natural antioxidant extracts. In this work, we use Brazilian red propolis extract because its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sun protection factor and antioxidant activity of different hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis (70% and 75%) prepared from lyophilized red propolis at room and high temperatures. The sun protection factor in vitro was determined by a spectrophotometric method developed by Mansur. The hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis incorporated with Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1 presented absorption in the UVB region. Also, the in vitro capacity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis to increase photoprotective activity of Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel was evaluated. The hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis incorporated presented higher values of sun protection factor and showed synergism in the photoprotective activity of Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1. The antioxidant activity and sun protection factor are correlated with total phenolics content of the extracts and the hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis 75% at room temperature was choosen. The formulation developed with Filter UVA-UVB 5% Gel Permulem TR-1 with this hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis showed safe to be applied on the skin according HET-CAM test. Suggests indication of hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis (75% – room temperature) associated to photoprotective formulations for use in photoprotective products.
Abstract This work presents an investigation of the activity concentration (AC) of naturally occurring radionuclides in 26 samples of seasoning and nuts utilized for Brazilian population. The samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium detector. The analysis shows that K-40 AC was measured in all samples, and its AC ranges from 21.0 Bq/kg to 1288 Bq/kg. The highest K-40 AC was measured for cheiro verde, a Brazilian seasoning made of chives (Allium schoenoprasum) and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum), while annatto, made with the fruit of Bixa orelhana , presented the lowest AC. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa ) presented the highest AC for Ra-226 and Ra-228 with 24 Bq/kg and 25.7 Bq/kg, respectively, and black pepper (Piper nigrum) presented the highest Ra-224 AC, with 33.9 Bq/kg. Behavior of radionuclides present in the seasoning samples and dose percentage due to ingestion was evaluated. The highest effective dose for members of the public due to idealized intake of 1 kg of seasoning was 23.5 µSv/y due to Brazil nut and the lowest effective dose was found for annatto: 0.13 µSv/y. The Syrian seasoning was the only sample that presented a measurable amount of Cs-137, (6.1 ± 1.1) Bq/kg for AC and 0.08µSv/y for effective dose.
Abstract Purpose: To compare the use of new cyanoacrylate surgical adhesive associated with macroporous tapes in cutaneous synthesis. Methods: Male Wistar rats with a longitudinal incision of 4cm were used on the back, divided into four groups: GI used octyl-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond®), GII used N-2-butylcyanoacrylate, GIII used octyl-cyanoacrylate and macroporous tape and GIV used N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate and macroporous tape. On the fourteenth day, the rats were submitted to euthanasia, were divided in two parts, and a layer of skin subcutaneous tissue through an area of operative healing was removed. One part was submitted to the study of rupture strength with the use of tensiometer, and in the other part histological examination was performed. Results: No force test was similar between groups I and II, being different from groups III and IV (P <0.001), which were identical to each other (P> 0.05). The units were compared among the studied groups, and they were different with the use of macroporous tapes (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The purpose of macroporous tapes is associated with CA adhesives in cutaneous tissues that provide more resistant scars. The use of a combination of macroporous tapes leads to complete re-epithelialization, without provoking foreign body reaction, has hemostatic properties and does not cause an absorptive reaction.
Abstract Objective: To investigate the use of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) electrospun fiber mats containing different amounts of polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a doxycycline delivery system and to test antibacterial activity against an oral pathogen. Methodology: PMMA powders or PEO (mol wt 200 Kd) (10,20,30% w/w/) were dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to obtain a final polymer concentration of 15% in DMF (w/v). 2% Doxycycline monohydrate was added to the solutions and submitted to vortex mixing. The solution was transferred to a plastic syringe and fit into a nanofiber electrospinning unit. The parameters applied were: voltage at 17.2 kV; distance of 20 cm between the needle tip and the collector plate; target speed at 2 m/min; and transverse speed at 1cm/min. Syringe pump speed was 0.15 mm/min. The drug release analysis was performed by removing aliquots of the drug-containing solution (in PBS) at specific periods. Doxycycline release was quantified using RP-HPLC. Fiber mats from all groups had their antibacterial action tested against S. mutans based on inhibition halos formed around the specimens. The experiments were performed in triplicate. Gravimetric analysis at specific periods was performed to determine any polymer loss. Morphological characterization of the electrospun fibers was completed under an optical microscope followed by SEM analysis. Results: The addition of PEO to the PMMA fibers did not affect the appearance and diameter of fibers. However, increasing the %PEO caused higher doxycycline release in the first 24 h. Fibers containing 30% PEO showed statistically significant higher release when compared with the other groups. Doxycycline released from the fibers containing 20% or 30% of PEO showed effective against S. mutans. Conclusion: The incorporation of PEO at 20% and 30% into PMMA fiber mat resulted in effective drug release systems, with detected antibacterial activity against S. mutans.
Resumo Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri é um protozoário flagelado que infecta ruminantes e apresenta alta diversidade genética. Neste estudo, investigamos as taxas de prevalência deste protozoário com base na hemocultura e no diagnóstico molecular. Os isolados de T . theileri obtidos foram caracterizados pelos marcadores moleculares SSU rDNA e gGAPDH e o diagnóstico molecular foi baseado no gene do tipo Catepsina L (PCR-TthCATL). O PCR-TthCATL e a hemocultura indicaram uma taxa de prevalência total de 8,13% e a sequência derivada do gene Catepsina L denominada IB de T. theileri foi identificada pela primeira vez em bovinos da Amazônia Ocidental, bem como a IF no Brasil. Também descrevemos uma possível nova sequência derivada da PCR-TthCATL em bovinos, designada IL.
Abstract Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri is a flagellated protozoan that infects ruminants and it displays high genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated the prevalence rates of this protozoan based on hemoculture and molecular diagnosis. The isolates of T. theileri thus obtained were characterized by molecular markers SSU rDNA and gGAPDH and molecular diagnosis based on Cathepsin L-like gene (PCR-TthCATL). The PCR-TthCATL and hemoculture indicated an overall prevalence rate of 8.13%, and the CATL derived sequence named IB was identified for the first time in cattle in the western Amazon region, as well as IF in Brazil. We also describe a possible new PCR-TthCATL derived sequence in cattle, designated IL.
RESUMO A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum da cirrose, acometendo até 20% dos pacientes hospitalizados. Este tema está em rápida evolução devido aos importantes avanços em novas classificações, biomarcadores e tratamentos que ocorreram nos últimos anos. Em nome da Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia, um painel de especialistas em Hepatologia e Nefrologia revisou as evidência publicadas na literatura, integrando os diferentes resultados de estudos, para desenvolver a presente recomendação.
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury is a common complication of cirrhosis, occurring in up to 20% of patients hospitalized with cirrhosis. This field is rapidly changing, with significant advances in classification, biomarkers and therapy over the last few years. On the behalf of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology, a panel of experts in Hepatology and Nephrology reviewed published evidence to integrate findings and develop the recommendations presented in this manuscript.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress in pregnant rats submitted to acute and chronic stress, relating to alterations in the uterus, placenta and fetus. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar albino (Rattus norvegicus), were divided into four groups, for induction of oxidative stress the animals were submitted to cold and physical immobilization. Plasma fasting glucose and MDA were determined in all groups and the fetuses and placentas were measured. Results: There were no statistical differences in the levels of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), however the averages of chronic stress group were higher compared to control groups, which could explain the observed adverse effects; there was no correlation between puppies’ size, the weight of the placenta and MDA values. Conclusions: Chronic stress causes adverse effects, when compared to control groups; chronic stress group had fetuses, placentas and number of puppies, significantly lower compared to other groups. The rats exposed to chronic stress, also presented a higher frequency of fetal resorption.
Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el rendimiento deshuesado en canal de 64 toros jóvenes Nellore alimentados en corral con dietas que contienen urea recubierta o sin recubrir y sacrificados a cinco pesos corporales (350, 455, 485, 555 y 580 kg). Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con un arreglo factorial de 5 χ 2. No se detectó ningún efecto significativo para la interacción entre el peso de sacrificio y la dieta; por lo tanto, las variables se analizaron por separado, en comparación con los contrastes polinómicos y la prueba F, respectivamente. Los pesos absolutos de los cortes primarios del cuarto anterior y posterior aumentaron linealmente a medida que aumentaba el peso del sacrificio de los animales. El aumento de los pesos de sacrificio elevó el porcentaje de la tapa de la grupa en el cuarto trasero de la pistola, así como su rendimiento. Los porcentajes de la gorguera y la falda de la rabadilla aumentaron linealmente, mientras que los de nudillo, lomo, filete de flanco, grupa y plano exterior disminuyeron y la suma de los cortes primarios tuvo un efecto cuadrático en relación con el peso de la mitad de la carcasa. El aumento de los pesos de matanza condujo a un mayor porcentaje de grasa del recorte de los cortes del cuarto trasero en relación con el peso de la carcasa 1/2. El peso de los cortes de carne fue similar entre los grupos de animales alimentados con urea recubierta y no recubierta. Los pesos de sacrificio más altos generan cortes de carne más pesados pero porcentajes más bajos de cortes primarios del cuarto trasero de la pistola en relación con el peso de la carcasa.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the boneless yield of the carcass of 64 feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls fed diets containing coated or uncoated urea and slaughtered at five body weights (350, 455, 485, 555, and 580 kg). A completely randomized design with a 5 χ 2 factorial arrangement was used. No significant effect was detected for the interaction between slaughter weight and diet; therefore, the variables were analyzed separately, compared by polynomial contrasts and the F test, respectively. The absolute weights of the primal cuts from the fore- and hind-quarter increased linearly as the slaughter weight of the animals increased. Increasing slaughter weights elevated the percentage of rump cap in the pistola hindquarter as well as its yield. The percentages of the rump cap and rump skirt increased linearly, whereas those of knuckle, tenderloin, flank steak, rump, and outside flat decreased and the sum of prime cuts had a quadratic effect in relation to the weight of the right 1/2 carcass. Increasing slaughter weights led to a higher percentage of fat from the trimming of the hindquarter cuts relative to the weight of the 1/2 carcass. The weight of meat cuts was similar between the groups of animals fed coated and uncoated urea. Higher slaughter weights generate heavier meat cuts but lower percentages of primal cuts from the pistola hindquarter relative to the carcass weight.
Resumo Introdução: Hábitos cotidianos e envolvimento em ocupações podem trazer impactos para o meio ambiente, tanto em um contexto micro quanto em um macrossocial. Práticas educativas direcionadas a temas socioambientais têm um caráter formativo importante, com o objetivo de construir um novo modelo de hábitos sustentáveis. Objetivo: Este estudo analisou, a partir da percepção de participantes de projetos socioeducativos, se espaços de práticas sustentáveis mudam os hábitos cotidianos e o envolvimento em ocupações também sustentáveis. Método: Em uma abordagem qualitativa, foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com 10 integrantes de projetos de extensão universitária com foco em práticas sustentáveis. A análise de conteúdo evidenciou mudanças de hábitos cotidianos entre os participantes após se inserirem nos projetos. Resultados: Os relatos mostraram aprendizado e aquisição de novos conhecimentos, além de disseminação destes conhecimentos entre amigos e familiares. As pessoas entrevistadas apontaram barreiras para implementação de práticas sustentáveis, tais como pouco conhecimento sobre educação ambiental, ausência de espaços adequados para descarte do lixo, consumo exagerado e comodismo das pessoas e autoridades. Os participantes também confirmaram a importância da realização de projetos de extensão universitária para o próprio crescimento pessoal e profissional. Conclusão: Assim, os espaços de práticas sustentáveis tornaram-se um locus importante para aprendizado socioambiental e para mudanças cotidianas voltadas para hábitos mais saudáveis e sustentáveis.
Abstract Introduction: Daily habits and involvement in occupations can bring impacts to the environment, both in a micro and macro social context. Educational practices related to environmental issues have an important educational nature in order to build a new model of sustainable habits. Objective: This study analyzed, from the perception of participants in socio-educational projects, if spaces of sustainable practices change daily habits and the involvement in occupations that are also sustainable. Method: In a qualitative approach, open interviews with ten members of university extension projects focused on sustainable practices were held. The content analysis revealed daily habit changes among the participants after they were inserted in the projects. Results: Reports showed learning and acquiring new knowledge, besides dissemination of this knowledge among friends and family. The interviewees pointed barriers to implement sustainable practices such as lack of knowledge about environmental education, lack of adequate space for waste disposal, self-indulgence of people and authorities, and overconsumption. The participants also confirmed the importance of carrying out university extension projects for their personal and professional growth. Conclusion: Thus, the spaces of sustainable practices have become an important locus for environmental learning and daily changes aimed healthier and more sustainable habits.
RESUMO: Foram delineados dois experimentos para avaliar o impacto de duas vacinas no desempenho reprodutivo de vacas multíparas de bovinos de corte em Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro-Oeste do Brasil. No Experimento 1 foram utilizadas 765 vacas multíparas paridas da raça Nelore submetidas ao mesmo protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) e repassadas por touros. O diagnóstico de gestação por ultrassonografia foi realizado aos 30 e 90 dias pós IATF. A prenhez e a taxa de perda de gestação foram determinadas para três períodos: de 30 a 90 DPI, de 30 DPI até para o parto e de 90 DPI até o parto. As vacas foram distribuídas em três grupos: grupo VACMULT (n=250), vacinado com vacina contra herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1), vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) e leptospirose; grupo VACL (n=245), vacinado somente contra leptospirose; e grupo NOVAC (n=270), não vacinado. Títulos de anticorpos no soro de 57 vacas de cada grupo evidenciaram infecção por BoHV-1, BVDV e leptospirose, sugerindo circulação desses patógenos no rebanho. No diagnóstico por ultrassonografia, a prenhez não diferiu em nenhum dos três grupos. A taxa de perda de gestação não diferiu significantemente entre os grupos e dentro de qualquer um dos períodos investigados (30 a 90 DPI, 30 DPI até o parto ou 90 DPI até o parto). No Experimento 2 foram testados dois protocolos de vacinação usando as vacinas contra IBR/BVDV/leptospirose e somente contra leptospirose em ambos. No grupo VACGEST as vacas foram vacinas no dia zero (D0) do protocolo da IATF e 30 dias pós- IATF (30 DPI). No grupo VACPREV a primeira dose foi administrada no D0 e a segunda no mesmo dia da IATF (D11). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, nem perda gestacional significativa no grupo que recebeu a segunda vacina no dia da inseminação (VACPREV). Os resultados mostram que as vacinas contra IBR/BVDV/leptospirose e somente contra leptospirose não interferiram no desempenho reprodutivo de vacas multíparas. Não houve diferença significativa entre o protocolo de vacinação empregado em D0 e D11 e aquele utilizado em D0 e 30 DPI. A realização da vacina contra IBR/BVD/leptospirose no dia da inseminação artificial não provocou efeitos adversos nos parâmetros reprodutivos.
ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of two vaccines on the reproductive performance of multiparous beef cows in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil. In Experiment 1,765 calved multiparous Nellore cows were subjected to the same fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocol and rebred. Ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 and 90 days post-FTAI (DPI). Rates of pregnancy and pregnancy loss were determined for three periods: from 30 to 90 DPI, from 30 DPI to calving, and from 90 DPI to calving. The cows were assigned to three groups with different vaccination protocols - namely, Group VACMULT (n=250): vaccine against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and leptospirosis; Group VACL (n=245): vaccine against leptospirosis alone; Group NOVAC (n=270): no vaccination. Serum antibody titers for BoHV-1, BVDV, and leptospirosis, measured in 57 cows from each group indicated active infection, suggesting circulation of these pathogens in the herd. No differences in pregnancy rates were observed across groups. Pregnancy loss rates did not differ significantly across groups within any of the periods investigated (30 to 90 DPI, 30 DPI to calving, or 90 DPI to calving). In Experiment 2, two vaccination protocols for each vaccine were investigated. Group VACGEST was vaccinated on day zero of FTAI (D0) and again 30 days post-FTAI (30 DPI). Group VACPREV was vaccinated on D0 and again on the day of insemination (D11). No significant difference was observed between groups, or significant gestational loss in the group that received the second vaccine on the day of insemination. The results revealed that neither vaccine interfered with the reproductive performance of multiparous cows. No differences were observed between vaccination carried out on both D0 and D11 and that performed on both D0 and D30. The performance of the IBR/BVDV/Leptospirosis vaccine on the day of the artificial insemination did not cause adverse effects on the reproductive parameters.