Abstract The term 'economy class syndrome' refers to the occurrence of thrombotic events during long-haul flights that mainly occur in passengers in the economy class of the aircraft. This syndrome results from several factors related to the aircraft cabin (immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia and low humidity) and the passenger (body mass index, thrombophilia, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer), acting together to predispose to excessive blood coagulation, which can result in venous thromboembolism. Several risk factors, both genetic and acquired, are associated with venous thromboembolism. The most important genetic risk factors are natural anticoagulant deficiencies (antithrombin, protein C and protein S), factor V Leiden, prothrombin and fibrinogen gene mutations and non-O blood group individuals. Acquired risk factors include age, pregnancy, surgery, obesity, cancer, hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, infections, immobilization and smoking. People who have these risk factors are predisposed to hypercoagulability and are more susceptible to suffer venous thromboembolism during air travel. For these individuals, a suitable outfit for the trip, frequent walks, calf muscle exercises, elastic compression stockings and hydration are important preventive measures. Hence, it is essential to inform about economic class syndrome in an attempt to encourage Brazilian health and transport authorities to adopt measures, in partnership with the pharmaceutical industry, to prevent venous thromboembolism.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The term dangerous universal blood donor refers to potential agglutination of the erythrocytes of non-O recipients due to plasma of an O blood group donor, which contains high titers of anti-A and/or anti-B hemagglutinins. Thus, prior titration of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins is recommended to prevent transfusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of dangerous universal donors in the blood bank of Belo Horizonte (Fundação Central de Imuno-Hematologia - Fundação Hemominas - Minas Gerais) by determining the titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in O blood group donors. METHOD: A total of 400 O blood group donors were randomly selected, from March 2014 to January 2015. The titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins (IgM and IgG classes) were obtained using the tube titration technique. Dangerous donors were those whose titers of anti-A or anti-B IgM were ≥128 and/or the titers of anti-A or anti-B IgG were ≥256. Donors were characterized according to gender, age and ethnicity. The hemagglutinins were characterized by specificity (anti-A and anti-B) and antibody class (IgG and IgM). RESULTS: Almost one-third (30.5%) of the O blood group donors were universal dangerous. The frequency among women was higher than that of men (p-value = 0.019; odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.56) and among young donors (18-29 years old) it was higher than for donors between 49 and 59 years old (p-value = 0.015; odds ratio: 3.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.69). There was no significant association between dangerous universal donors and ethnicity, agglutinin specificity or antibody class. CONCLUSION: Especially platelet concentrates obtained by apheresis (that contain a substantial volume of plasma), coming from dangerous universal donors should be transfused in isogroup recipients whenever possible in order to prevent the occurrence of transfusion reactions.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune thrombophilia characterized by the presence of a heterogeneous family of antibodies that bind to plasma proteins with affinity for phospholipid surfaces. The two major protein targets of antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombin and β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI). APS leads to aprothrombotic state, and it is characterized by the occurrence of arterial, venous or microvascular thrombosis or recurrent fetal loss. The diagnosis of APS is based on a set of clinical criteria and the detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) or anti-β2GPI in plasma. Although laboratory tests are essential for APS diagnosis, these tests have limitations associated with the robustness, reproducibility and standardization. The standardization of diagnostic tests for detection of APLAs has been a challenge and a variety of results have been obtained using different commercial kits and in-house techniques. An increased sensitivity of the ELISA kits for detection of ACA effectively has contributed to APS diagnosis. However, the lack of specificity associated with a high number of false-positive results is a clinical and laboratorial challenge, since such results may lead to mistaken clinical decisions, such as prescription of oral anticoagulant, leading to the risk of hemorrhaging. Furthermore, clinicians are often unfamiliar with these tests and have difficulty interpreting them, requiring interaction between clinical and laboratory professionals in order to ensure their correct interpretation.
A síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAAF) é uma trombofilia autoimune adquirida, caracterizada pela presença de uma família heterogênea de anticorpos que se ligam a proteínas plasmáticas com afinidade, por superfícies fosfolipídicas. As duas principais proteínas-alvo dos anticorpos antifosfolípides (AAF) são a protrombina e a β2-glicoproteína 1 (β2GP1). A SAAF está associada a um estado protrombótico e é clinicamente caracterizada pela ocorrência de trombose arterial, venosa ou microvascular ou perda fetal recorrente. O diagnóstico da SAAF é baseado em um conjunto de critérios clínicos e na detecção plasmática de anticoagulante lúpico (AL), anticorpo anticardiolipina (ACA) ou antiβ2GP1. Embora os testes laboratoriais sejam de fundamental importância para o diagnóstico da SAAF, eles apresentam limitações associadas à robustez, à reprodutibilidade e à padronização. A padronização de testes diagnósticos para a pesquisa de AAF tem sido um desafio, pois uma variedade de resultados pode ser obtida utilizando diferentes kits comerciais e técnicas in-house. Um aumento da sensibilidade dos kits de ELISA para a detecção do ACA contribuiu efetivamente para o diagnóstico da SAAF. No entanto, a falta de especificidade, associada a um número elevado de resultados falso-positivos, é um desafio clínico e laboratorial, uma vez que tais resultados podem levar a decisões clínicas erradas, como a prescrição de anticoagulante oral, levando ao risco de hemorragia. Além disso, os clínicos muitas vezes não estão familiarizados com esses testes e têm dificuldade em interpretá-los, sendo necessária a interação da clínica e dos profissionais do laboratório para assegurar sua correta interpretação.
Atherothrombosis and its complications are currently the leading cause of worldwide mortality and its incidence is increasing . Platelets play an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic events, justifying the use of antiplatelet agents in their prevention. Thus, it is essential to know the efficacy and safety profile of these drugs in primary and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. In this context, this review was performed with the aim of describing and summarizing the outcomes of the main trials involving the use of antiplatelet agents in the two levels of prevention, and evaluating the effectiveness and major adverse events related to therapy.
A aterotrombose e suas complicações correspondem, hoje, à principal causa de mortalidade no mundo todo, e sua incidência encontra-se em franca expansão. As plaquetas desempenham um papel essencial na patogênese dos eventos aterotrombóticos, justificando a utilização dos antiagregantes plaquetários na prevenção dos mesmos. Desse modo, é essencial que se conheça o perfil de eficácia e segurança desses fármacos em prevenção primária e secundária de eventos aterotrombóticos. Dentro desse contexto, a presente revisão foi realizada com o objetivo de descrever e sintetizar os resultados dos principais ensaios, envolvendo a utilização de antiagregantes nos dois níveis de prevenção, e avaliando a eficácia e os principais eventos adversos relacionados à terapia.