The aim of this work was to evaluate the agronomic and bromatologic aspects of nine herbaceous forage legumes. Legumes studied included C. ternatea L., D. heterocarpon (L.) DC. subsp. ovalifolium (Prain) Ohashi cv. Itabela, A. pintoi Krap and Greg. cv. Amarillo, Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, S. guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. cv. Bandeirante, cv. Cook and cv. Mineirão and Stylosanthes macrocephala Ferreira e Sousa Costa cv. Pioneiro. The following response variables were measured: soil cover, plant height, fresh matter production, stand, seed production, FDN, FDA, hemicellulose, lignin, PB and MM concentrations of leaves and stems. Four cuts were performed during the experimental period. Cutting intensities were at the ground level for the first cut and 5 cm for the following cuts. It was used a complete randomized block design with three replications per treatment. C. ternatea showed the greatest fresh matter yield summed along the four cuts (45.6 t/ha/432 d). This same legume showed one of the greatest PB concentrations, both for leaves (27.4%) and for stems (11.5%). At 43 days after transplanting, C. mucunoides showed the greatest soil coverage. During the 432 days of experimental period, the S. guianensis cultivars did not flower, however, C. mucunoides, C. ternatea, and S. macrocephala presented the greatest seed production. A. pintoi, C. ternatea and C. mucunoides showed greater potential for forage production in this region, and with C. ternatea presenting the most promising results in terms of chemical composition.
O trabalho objetivou avaliar aspectos agronômicos e bromatológicos de nove leguminosas forrageiras herbáceas na zona da Mata Seca de Pernambuco. As leguminosas estudadas foram: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv, Clitoria ternatea L., Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. subsp. ovalifolium (Prain) Ohashi cv. Itabela, Arachis pintoi Krap e Greg. cv. Amarillo, Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. cv. Bandeirante, cv. Cook e cv. Mineirão e Stylosanthes macrocephala Ferreira e Sousa Costa cv. Pioneiro. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: cobertura do solo, altura da planta, produção de matéria verde, stand, relação folha/caule, produção de sementes, teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), hemicelulose, celulose, lignina, proteína bruta (PB) e matéria mineral (MM) das folhas e caules. Foram realizados quatro cortes, sendo utilizada intensidade de 0 cm para o primeiro corte e 5 cm para os demais. O delineamento foi blocos casualizados com três repetições. A maior produção de MV acumulada foi de 45,6 t/ha/432 dias apresentada pela C. ternatea que também apresentou um dos maiores teores de PB, tanto para a folha (27,4%) quanto para o caule (11,5%). Aos 43 dias após o transplantio, o C. mucunoides foi a leguminosa que apresentou a maior porcentagem de solo coberto. Durante o período experimental (432 dias) não foi observado florescimento dos S. guianensis, enquanto que C. mucunoides, C. ternatea e S. macrocephala apresentaram maior potencial de produção de sementes. A. pintoi, C. ternatea e C. mucunoides mostraram grande potencial para produção de forragem nesta região, com a C. ternatea apresentando os resultados mais promissores quanto à composição química.
Grasslands are being replaced by urbanization and more profitable agricultural activities around the world. Producers may be faced with land constraints and need to consider intensification of the remaining grasslands as a means of maintaining overall production on a decreasing land resource. However, intensification of the grazing system is usually associated with greater nutrient inputs, including those from commercial fertilizers and supplement fed to animals. Excessive loading of nutrients in intensive grazing systems via fertilizer and animal wastes can cause nutrient buildup in the soil and subsequent water quality problems. Surface runoff and leaching of nutrients are the two major process affecting water quality. Nitrogen and P represent major nutrient concerns as related to water quality. Increased nitrate concentrations render groundwater unsuitable for drinking and can cause serious health issues for humans. Excessive N and P concentrations may contribute to eutrophication of streams and lakes. Maximizing efficiency of nutrient recycling through the soil-forage-animal system minimizes off-site nutrient transport and decreases production costs by reducing the quantity of commercial fertilizer needed. Management strategies to reduce soil and water contamination include refining the balance of nutrient inputs from feeds and fertilizers as well as accounting for the nutrients recycled through the decomposition of plant litter and animal wastes. Current interest in the development and adoption of efficient and sustainable agriculture systems has led forage researchers to amplify the scope of grasslands research by increasing multidisciplinary efforts. There is an increased interest in quantifying the impacts of forage-animal management strategies on the environment, with the goal of developing economically viable best management practices that result in optimum forage production and profitability, while protecting the environment. Furthermore, these best management practices will supply reliable information for future environmental policies that may be adopted by governmental agencies.