OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory molecules play a role in the development of atherosclerosis, which is the primary origin of cardiovascular disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has attempted to investigate the relationship between these circulating molecules and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 serum concentrations with the extent of coronary lesions. METHODS: Seventy-four individuals who were undergoing coronary angiography for the first time for diagnostic purposes were enrolled in this study. The extent of the coronary lesion was assessed using the Friesinger Index, and subjects were classified into four groups: no lesions, minor lesions, intermediate lesions and major lesions. Serum biochemical parameters and serum concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were analyzed. RESULTS: The vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration was higher than 876 ng/mL in individuals with intermediate and major lesions (p<0.001 and p=0.020, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that these patients had an increased risk of having an intermediate lesion (p=0.007). Interestingly, all individuals with major lesions had vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations higher than 876 ng/mL. No association was found between the concentrations of the other proteins and the Friesinger Index. CONCLUSIONS: Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 may be associated with the extent of coronary lesions. Moreover, it may represent an alternative to improve the cardiovascular risk classification in patients without acute coronary syndrome.
ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk development. However, the mechanisms of reduced kidney function with CVD risk are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between kidney function and Framingham risk score (FRS) in participants with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 60 mL/min/1.73 m² in an admixed population of Brazil. The participants were divided into three groups according to FRS: low risk group with 0% to <10%, moderate risk group with ≥10% to 20% and high risk group with >20%. The eGFR was calculated using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). Data from participants were collected by questionnaire, and blood and urine samples were collected to analyze biochemical markers. A total of 214 subjects aged 53±10 years old was collected. There were 77 individuals in low risk group, 59 in moderate risk group and 78 in high-risk group. Mean eGFRCKD-EPI was 89.39±15.05 mL/min/1.73 m² and 90.74±16.17 mL/min/1.73 m2 when race adjustment. The results indicated that there is an increasing the cardiovascular risk with a decreased of eGFR, conforming to a significant inverse correlation observed between eGFR and FRS with Spearman correlation (R²=-0.256, p<0.001; R²=-0.224, p=0.001, when adjusted for race). There was a statistically significant difference in eGFRCKD-EPI (p<0.001) and eGFRCKD-EPI with race adjustment (p=0.002) among risk groups. The data suggests that the reduction eGFR is associated with elevated FRS among Brazilian adults without CKD. Furthermore, the results suggest that race adjustment it’s not necessary in Brazilian population.