OBJECTIVES: To study acute exposure to imidazoline derivatives in 72 children younger than 15 years of age, followed-up from January 1994 to December 1999. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 72 patients with age between 2 months and 13 years (median 2 years; 25-75% = 1 to 3 years old) exposed to naphazoline (N=48), fenoxazoline (N=18), oxymetazoline (N=5) and tetrahydrozoline (N=1), through oral (N=46), nasal (N=24) or unknown (N=2) routes. RESULTS: Fifty-seven children developed clinical manifestations such as somnolence (N=34/57), sweating (N=20/57), pallor (N=17/57), hypothermia (N=16/57), bradycardia (N=13/57), cool extremities (N=9/57), restlessness (N=7/57), tachycardia (N=6/57), vomiting (N= 5/57), irregular respiratory pattern and apnea (N= 5/57), miosis/mydriasis (N=4/57). Naphazoline was the active ingredient most frequently involved (N=47), followed by phenoxazoline (N=5) and oxymetazoline (N=4). The onset of clinical manifestations was rapid, beginning within 2 hours after exposure in 32/57 children. Only supportive measures were employed, with one child requiring mechanical ventilation after accidental naphazoline ingestion. In most of the children resolution of symptoms occurred within 24 hours (N= 39/57). No deaths were observed. Patients exposed to naphazoline (N=47/48) presented a higher frequency of clinical signs of poisoning in comparison with those exposed to phenoxazoline (N= 5/18) (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the frequency of patients who presented clinical manifestations considering the route of exposure [oral (N=34/46), nasal (N=21/24); p=0.31]. CONCLUSIONS: Most children (especially those younger than 3 years) exposed to imidazoline derivatives (especially naphazoline) presented early signs of poisoning regardless of the exposure route (nasal or oral). The main signs observed were nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory depression. Most children showed complete resolution of the symptoms within 24 hours.
OBJETIVOS: Estudar a exposição aguda a derivados imidazolínicos em crianças com idade inferior a 15 anos, atendidas no período de janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 1999. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo foram avaliadas 72 crianças com idades entre dois meses e 13 anos, mediana de dois anos (25% a 75%; um a três anos), expostas a nafazolina (n = 48), fenoxazolina (n = 18), oximetazolina (n = 5) e tetrizolina (n = 1); por via oral (n = 46), nasal (n = 24) ou desconhecida (n = 2). RESULTADOS: No total, 57 crianças desenvolveram manifestações clínicas: sonolência (n = 34), sudorese (n = 20), palidez (n = 17), hipotermia (n = 16), bradicardia (n = 13), extremidades frias (n = 9), agitação (n = 7), taquicardia (n = 6), vômitos (n = 34), respiração irregular e apnéia (n = 5), miose/midríase (n = 4), sendo a nafazolina (n = 47), a fenoxazolina (n = 5) e a oximetazolina (n = 4) os princípios ativos mais envolvidos. O início das manifestações clínicas foi rápido, iniciando-se, em 32/57 crianças, até duas horas após a exposição. Somente medidas de suporte foram empregadas, com uma criança necessitando de ventilação mecânica após exposição à nafazolina. Na maioria dos pacientes, o quadro clínico remitiu até 24 horas após a exposição (n = 39/57). Não houve evolução letal. Pacientes expostos à nafazolina (n = 47/48) apresentaram maior freqüência de manifestações clínicas de intoxicação em comparação com aqueles expostos à fenoxazolina (n = 5/18) (p < 0,001). Comparando-se a freqüência de pacientes que desenvolveram manifestações clínicas de acordo com a via de exposição (oral, n = 34/46; nasal, n = 21/24), não foi encontrada uma diferença estatisticamente significante (p = 0,31). CONCLUSÕES: Na maioria dos casos de exposição a derivados imidazolínicos, principalmente à nafazolina e em crianças com menos de três anos de idade, ocorreu, independentemente da via (oral ou nasal), o aparecimento precoce de manifestações clínicas de intoxicação, destacando-se as depressões neurológica, cardiovascular e respiratória, que regrediram até 24 horas após a exposição.
Multiple organ failure (MOF) is the main cause of death in ICUs, especially affecting septic patients. It is strongly related to number of systems with failure, type of system involved, risk factors such as age, previous chronic diseases, delayed or inadequate resuscitation, persistent infection, immune suppression, and others. The prognoses is worse for patients rather than in elective or emergency surgical patients. The objective of this article is to provide data from our university teaching hospital ICU related to the incidence of septic patients, the distribution of MOF, and distribution of failure among each of the organs. The mortality rate, relationship between mortality and age, and mortality and types of organs affected were evaluated. The main bacterial causes of sepsis were also identified. A retrospective evaluation was done of 249 patients admitted to the ICU in a 4 month period during 1999. Fifty four patients had sepsis diagnosed by ACCS/SCCM criteria. There were 37 men and 17 women; 24 medical and 30 post-surgical patients (9 after elective surgery and 21 emergency patients). APACHE II score was calculated on admission and MOF, measured for the first five days, was diagnosed using Marshall and Meakins criteria. The statistical method used was non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05 was considered significant. The incidence of sepsis was recorded in 54/249 patients (22%). Thirty of these 54 patients (56%) died. Death occurred in 2 of 11 pateints with one organ failure (18%), in 14/27 with 2 or 3 organ failures (52%), and 14/16 with 4 or more organ failures (88%). None of the three patients 15 to 20 years old died, 17/32 (55%) pateints age 21-60 years, and >61 years 13/19 (68%), died. There were 23 patients with positive bacterial culture. The most frequent bacteria found were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), multiresistant Acinetobacter baumanii (3), Staphylococcus epidermidis (3), Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2) and multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (2). The mean value ± SD of APACHE II (mortality risk) for survivors was 21 ± 18 and for non-survivors 42 ± 26 (p<0.001). We conclude that MOF due to sepsis in an ICU is frequent, with high mortality related to the number of failing organs, age and high APACHE II.
OBJETIVE: To assess the hemodynamic profile of cardiac surgery patients with circulatory instability in the early postoperative period (POP). METHODS: Over a two-year period, 306 patients underwent cardiac surgery. Thirty had hemodynamic instability in the early POP and were monitored with the Swan-Ganz catheter. The following parameters were evaluated: cardiac index (CI), systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary shunt, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), oxygen delivery and consumption, use of vasoactive drugs and of circulatory support. RESULTS: Twenty patients had low cardiac index (CI), and 10 had normal or high CI. Systemic vascular resistance was decreased in 11 patients. There was no correlation between oxygen delivery (DO2) and consumption (VO2), p=0.42, and no correlation between CVP and PCWP, p=0.065. Pulmonary vascular resistance was decreased in 15 patients and the pulmonary shunt was increased in 19. Two patients with CI < 2L/min/m² received circulatory support. CONCLUSION: Patients in the POP of cardiac surgery frequently have a mixed shock due to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Therefore, invasive hemodynamic monitoring is useful in handling blood volume, choice of vasoactive drugs, and indication for circulatory support.