ABSTRACT Cereal cyst nematode is a major pest of small grain cereals, which causes huge yield losses to crops in China and other parts of the world. In this study, the effects of five inorganic ion concentrations on egg hatching of Heterodera avenae were studied. Results revealed that ZnCl2 and FeCl3 promoted hatching of induced and natural diapausing eggs. The cumulative hatching rates of eggs were 49 % and 13 % at 30 mM ZnCl2 and 10 mM FeCl3, respectively, which were higher than those of other treatments. The hatching ability promoted by ZnCl2 is greater than by FeCl3. Diapause induced eggs in ZnCl2 continued to hatch after 10 days; however, those in FeCl3 mainly hatched in the first two weeks. ZnCl2 had obvious stimulating effects on the hatching of natural diapause and non–diapause free eggs at 15 and 30 mM concentrations. FeCl3 promoted the hatching of natural diapause eggs; howevr, it inhibited hatching of non–diapause free eggs. Conversely, different concentrations of inorganic ions did not have any stimulatory effect on white female eggs. In the nematode life cycle, hatching is the critical stage because juveniles may be infected. The results of this study provide useful information the use of new fertilizers (including promoted hatching inorganic ions) applied before planting for controlling nematode diseases caused by H. avenae.
ABSTRACT To seek a simple, rapid and sensitive Coprinus cinereus Peroxidase (CIP) activity assay, a convenient one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method and a response surface methodology (RSM) were used. The recombinant CIP expressed in Pichia pastoris was purified with the Ni-NTA spin column. Based on the results of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) analysis, 2,2'-azinobis (ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was selected as the optimal enzyme substrate. Results of the OFAT method showed that enzymatic reaction performed in 0.1 mol/L sodium acetate (pH 5.0) buffer in a 200-µl reaction mixture containing 0.5 mmol/L ABTS, 10 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 49.7 ng CIP at 25°C gave an average CIP activity of 88 U/mL. The ABTS and H2O2 concentrations were then further optimized to improve the sensitivity of the assay. To do that, RSM was conducted through central composite design, and a reduced quadratic model with good fit regression equation was generated. ANOVA analysis of this model indicated that the concentrations of ABTS and H2O2 and their interaction had significant impact on the assay sensitivity. The optimal reaction mixture was determined to include an initial ABTS concentration of 0.82 mmol/L 49.7 ng CIP and 16.36 mmol/L H2O2, and the activity under this condition was determined to be 138.89 U/mL.
The aim of this work was to study the biodiesel production from cotton seed oil by lipase produced by Pichia guilliermondii lipase, which was immobilized onto hydrophobic magnetic particles (HMPs). The optimum reaction conditions were determined for lipase dosage, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, temperature and water content. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content by multiple regression analysis. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transesterification were temperature of 38.76℃, 31.3% immobilized lipase, 10.4% water content, and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4.715:1. The gas chromatography- mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid.