ABSTRACT Objective: to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. Method: this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis: Results: the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. Conclusion: a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola.
RESUMEN Objetivo: traducir, adaptar y validar el contenido del Diabetes Medical Management Plan para el contexto brasileño, protocolo elaborado por la Asociación de Diabetes Americana, que orienta la conducta de los educadores para el cuidado de niños y adolescentes con diabetes mellitus en las escuelas. Método: se trata de estudio metodológico, realizado en cuatro etapas: traducción inicial, síntesis de la traducción inicial, retrotraducción y validación de contenido por un Comité de Jueces, compuesto por 94 especialistas (29 lingüistas aplicados y 65 profesionales del área de la Salud), para evaluación de la versión traducida por medio de un cuestionario online. El nivel de concordancia de los jueces fue calculado con base en el Índice de Validez de Contenido. Los datos recolectados fueron exportados para ser analizados estadísticamente en el ambiente R. Resultados: la evaluación del instrumento presentó buena concordancia entre los jueces de las áreas de Salud y Lingüística Aplicada, con Índice de Validez de Contenido promedio de 0,9 y 0,89, respectivamente, y pequeña variabilidad del índice entre grupos (diferencia inferior a 0,01). Los ítems de la versión traducida, evaluados como insatisfactorios por los jueces, fueron reformulados con base en las sugestiones de los profesionales de cada grupo. Conclusión: se construyó una versión brasileña del Diabetes Medical Management Plan, denominado Plan de Administración de la Diabetes en la Escuela.
RESUMO Objetivo: traduzir, adaptar e validar o conteúdo do Diabetes Medical Management Plan para o contexto brasileiro, protocolo elaborado pela Associação Americana de Diabetes, que orienta a conduta dos educadores para o cuidado das crianças e adolescentes com diabetes mellitus nas escolas. Método: trata-se de estudo metodológico, realizado em quatro etapas: tradução inicial, síntese da tradução inicial, retrotradução e validação de conteúdo por um Comitê de Juízes, composto por 94 especialistas (29 linguistas aplicados e 65 profissionais da área da Saúde), para avaliação da versão traduzida por meio de um questionário online. O nível de concordância dos juízes foi calculado com base no Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Os dados coletados foram exportados para análise estatística no ambiente R. Resultados: a avaliação do instrumento apresentou boa concordância entre os juízes das áreas da Saúde e Linguística Aplicada, com Índice de Validade de Conteúdo médio de 0,9 e 0,89, respectivamente, e pequena variabilidade do índice entre grupos (diferença inferior a 0,01). Os itens da versão traduzida, avaliados como insatisfatórios pelos juízes, foram reformulados com base nas ponderações dos profissionais de cada grupo. Conclusão: construiu-se uma versão brasileira do Diabetes Medical Management Plan, denominado Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola.
ContextNeurological symptoms have been well-documented in patients with celiac disease, nevertheless, the presumption of a greater prevalence of epilepsy in celiac patients remains controversial.ObjectivesTo determine the frequency of celiac disease in children and adolescents with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy.MethodsA cross-sectional study. One hundred pediatric patients with non-symptomatic epilepsy were followed-up at two public pediatric neurology clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Screening for celiac disease was performed by serial measurements of IgA anti-transglutaminase and IgA anti-endomysium antibodies, followed by bowel biopsy in positive cases. HLA DQ02 and DQ08 were investigated in seropositive individuals, assessing the type of seizures, the number of antiepileptic drugs used and the presence gastrointestinal symptoms.ResultsThree (3.0%) patients tested anti-tTG-positive, two with normal duodenal mucosa (Marsh 0) and one with intraepithelial infiltrate (Marsh I). No villous atrophy of the duodenal mucosa (Marsh III) celiac disease was found. Two patients tested positive for HLA DQ02; none were DQ08 positive.ConclusionThe present study failed to prove the association between celiac disease and epilepsy.
ContextoOs sintomas neurológicos têm sido bem documentados em pacientes com doença celíaca, no entanto, a presunção de uma maior prevalência de epilepsia em pacientes celíacos permanece controverso.ObjetivosDeterminar a frequência de Doença Celíaca em crianças e adolescentes portadores de epilepsia idiopática ou criptogênica.MétodosEstudo transversal. Cem pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia não-sintomática foram acompanhados em dois ambulatórios públicos de neurologia pediátrica em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Triagem para doença celíaca foi feita por dosagem sérica de IgA anti-transglutaminase e anti-endomísio IgA, seguido por biópsia de intestino nos casos positivos. HLA DQ02 e DQ08 foram investigadas em indivíduos soropositivos, avaliando o tipo de crise epiléptica, o número de medicamentos anti-epilépticos utilizados e a presença de sintomas gastrointestinais.ResultadosTrês (3,0%) pacientes apresentaram anti-transglutaminase positivo, dois com mucosa normal duodenal (Marsh 0) e um com infiltrado intraepitelial (Marsh I). Não foi encontrada atrofia das vilosidades da mucosa do duodeno (Marsh III). Dois deles foram positivos para o HLA DQ02; nenhum foi DQ08 positivo.ConclusãoO presente estudo não conseguiu provar a associação entre doença celíaca e epilepsia.
The development of a specific agar diffusion bioassay for the quantitative determination of fluconazole formulated in capsules was carried out using a strain of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 as the test organism. A prospective validation of the method showed adequate linearity (r²=0.9995), precision (R.S.D. = 4.0% for intra-day and 4.5% for inter-day precision) and accuracy (mean recovery = 102.9%). High performance liquid chromatography was chosen as a comparison method for the fluconazole determination. The contents of fluconazole determined by both methods, for four capsule samples, showed a strong correlation, confirmed by Pearson's correlation coefficient value (r = 0.9884). The bioassay is a suitable method for both research and pharmaceutical industry laboratories.
Este trabalho visou ao desenvolvimento e validação de um método microbiológico por difusão em ágar para quantificação de fluconazol em cápsulas utilizando o isolado Candida albicans ATCC 18804 como reagente biológico. O método foi validado e foi verificada linearidade (r²=0,9995), precisão (D.P.R. = 4.0% para precisão intra-dia e 4,5% para precisão inter-dia) e exatidão (recuperação média = 102,9%). Concomitantemente, foi realizado o doseamento de fluconazol nas cápsulas por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os teores encontrados por ambos os métodos demonstraram alta correlação, confirmada pelo Coeficiente de Correlação de Pearson (r = 0,9884). O ensaio microbiológico desenvolvido pode ser considerado ferramenta valiosa tanto para a pesquisa científica quanto para a rotina da indústria farmacêutica.
Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples were collected from all workers, as well as samples of the milk and formulas delivered by the kitchens. All samples were cultured for the detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 20 (22.0%) and 8 (8.8%) cultures of the hands and pharynx of the workers, respectively. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from stool samples. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 17 (18.7%) milk samples. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in hand swabs was significantly higher in workers from public (37.8%) than from private (6.5%) hospitals (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.8; p<0.01). Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two (4.4%) workers from public hospitals and six (13.0%) workers from private hospitals (PR=0.38; p=0.27). Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 11 (24.4%) milk samples from public hospitals and 6 (13.0%) from private hospitals (PR=1.9; p=0.16). A high prevalence of contamination was found, mainly on the hands of workers on units for manipulation of milk. Preventive efforts should be intensified and focus primarily on effective hand washing and continuous work supervision.
Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children),each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.
Several methodological issues may have an impact on the incidence rates of childhood acute diarrhea reported by community-based studies. This study was performed to assess the impact of parental recall ability and definition of diarrhea on the estimate of incidence of acute diarrhea. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for four weeks and the occurrence of diarrhea was registered. On the last day of the study, another visit was performed and the informants were inquired about the occurrence of diarrhea during the previous four weeks. Data gathered during the four weeks were compared to those obtained on the last visit. Additionally, the informants' definition of diarrhea was investigated and compared to the one adopted by this study. During the observation period, 33 children suffered diarrhea, but only 10 (30.3%) informants reported the occurrence of diarrhea. Although 42.4% of those informants reported that their children had been ill over that period, they did not report diarrhea. Further, 60.6% children who had diarrhea suffered at least one episode in the two weeks prior to the visitation. The same definition of diarrhea used in this study was adopted by 52.1% of the informants inquired. Parental recall is an unreliable method to estimate the incidence of diarrhea and studies with a short interval between the visits should be necessary to correctly evaluate this important health problem. Moreover, assessing the informants' own definition of diarrhea is a significant contribution to the interpretation of the results.
While the routine use of antibiotics for infectious diarrhea in children must be avoided, because it brings little benefit in most cases and is associated with the risk of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selected cases may require antimicrobial therapy, and the choice of the antimicrobial agent often has to be made empirically. Physicians prescribing antimicrobials in such a setting have not only to be aware of the most likely pathogens, but also of their characteristic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the safety profile of the various drugs. We reviewed the literature on the use of ampicillin, beta-lactamase inhibitors, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, nalidixic acid, fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, metronidazole and malabsorbed agents in the setting of acute infectious diarrhea, and we evaluated the available information, seeking to apply it to empirical use, highlighting clinically-useful pharmacological information and patients' and pathogens' characteristics that must be taken into account for decisions about antimicrobial therapy.
Little is known about the epidemiology of severe rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Brazil. Given the morbidity associated with this condition and the importance of having detailed knowledge about the impact of rotavirus infection on the epidemiology of acute diarrhea in children, especially those with the most severe diarrheal conditions, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Salvador, Brazil, due to rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis during one year. It was observed that rotavirus was responsible for 15.6% of the hospitalizations caused by diarrhea and/or vomiting during the period of the study and that 87 of 218 (39.1%) patients seen at the emergency room with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis needed to be hospitalized, comprising the population of our study. Most patients presented signs of dehydration, and 41% of them had metabolic acidosis. Most patients (79%) were between six months and four years of age and 72% of the cases occurred in June and July. Gastrointestinal symptoms were rarely present at the beginning of the clinical presentation, and they normally did not last for more than one week.
In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7%) were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3%) cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4%) cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%). Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1%) and to ampicillin (22.0%), while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.