Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the actual incidence of both microlithiasis and acute cholecystitis during treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone in a new rabbit model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone or saline for 21 days. Ultrasound monitoring of the gallbladder was performed every seven days until the 21st day when histopathology, immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), pro-caspase-3 and CD68, liver enzyme biochemistry, and chromatography analysis of the bile and sediments were also performed. Results: All animals treated with ceftriaxone developed acute cholecystitis, confirmed by histopathology (P<0.05) and biliary microlithiasis, except one that exhibited sediment precipitation. In the group treated with ceftriaxone there was an increase in pro-caspase-3, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase concentration, PCNA expression and in the number of cells positive for anti-CD68 (P<0.05). In the ceftriaxone group, the cholesterol and lecithin concentrations increased in the bile and a high concentration of ceftriaxone was found in the microlithiasis. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone administered intravenously at therapeutic doses causes a high predisposition for lithogenic bile formation and the development of acute lithiasic cholecystitis.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. METHODS: It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage RESULTS: Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. CONCLUSION: The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.