OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost screening test for identifying children at risk for language disorders with that of a specific language assessment. METHODS: The study was conducted during a polio vaccination campaign in basic health units in western São Paulo, Brazil. The parents/guardians of 1000 children aged between 0 and 5 years were asked to answer questions of a specific screening test. The instrument consisted of a uniform set of questions about the main milestones in language development (from 0 to 5 years of age) with scaled scores to assess responses. There were no exclusion criteria. After the screening test, the children were referred to a specific language assessment by ABFW, following a determined flow of referrals. The results obtained in the screening were compared to those obtained in the specific language assessment; then, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were determined for the screening test. Children who failed the screening test also underwent an audiological evaluation. The statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were aged between 4 and 5 years (21.82%) and were male (51.6%). The sensitivity and specificity values were 82.5% and 98.93%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.907 (0.887-0.925), and the screening test showed 96% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The screening test showed high diagnostic efficiency in determining the risk of language disorders in children aged between 0 and 5 years.
ABSTRACT Purpose Characterize infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders according to sociodemographic and health profiles and describe their monitoring in Basic Health Units (UBS) under different management models. Methods Data were collected from medical records of infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the west region of the city of Sao Paulo from August 2013 to February 2014 (phase 1 – characterization; phase 2 – monitoring). Results Of the 225 individuals assessed in the first phase of the study, 51.1% were female and 7.11% were twins. Adolescent (45.2%), brown (50.56%), single (46.09%), complete primary education (47.60%) mothers were predominant. The mean number of prenatal visits was 7.12. Most mothers had vaginal delivery (62.22%) at mean gestational age of 37.05 weeks. Mean Apgar scores at the 1st and 5th minutes were 7.13 and 8.80, respectively. Mean weight at birth was 2597.21g., with 50.22% of newborns weighting ≤2500g. In its second phase, the study describes and compares the follow-up of 55 infants according to the UBS management model: 28 in UBS/“Estratégia Saúde da Família” (UBS/ESF) and 27 in traditional UBS (UBS/T). UBS/ESF presented higher mean of consultations (p=0.006). Longer interval between consultations was observed at UBS/T. No records of development milestones were found in 56% of the sample. Growth measures were better registered at UBS/ESF. In both management models, the number of consultations was smaller and the interval between them was shorter than those recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Conclusion According to the recommended guidelines of the “Rede Cegonha” public policy, gaps in the monitoring of infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders are still observed.
RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar bebês de risco quanto ao perfil sociodemográfico e de saúde e descrever o acompanhamento de parte destes nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS), segundo diferentes modelos de gestão. Método Levantamento de dados de prontuários dos bebês de risco nascidos na região Oeste da cidade de São Paulo entre agosto de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014 em duas etapas (1 – caracterização; 2 – acompanhamento do desenvolvimento). Resultados Dos 225 indivíduos incluídos na primeira etapa, 51,1% eram do gênero feminino e 7,11% eram gemelares. Predominaram mães adolescentes (45,2%), pardas (50,56%), com ensino fundamental completo (47,60%) e solteiras (46,09%). A média de consultas pré-natais foi de 7,12. A maioria teve parto vaginal (62,21%) com idade gestacional média de 37,05 semanas. A média do Apgar foi de 7,13 no 1º minuto e 8,80 no 5º minuto. O peso médio ao nascimento foi de 2597,21 g, com 50,22% apresentando peso ≤2500g. Na segunda etapa, descreveu-se e comparou-se o acompanhamento do desenvolvimento de 55 bebês, segundo o modelo de gestão das UBS (28 em UBS/Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF] e 27 em UBS tradicional). As UBS/ESF apresentaram maior média de consultas (p=0,006). Houve maior intervalo entre consultas nas UBS tradicionais. Da amostra, 56% não apresentaram registros referentes aos marcos de desenvolvimento. As medidas de crescimento foram registradas em maior número nas UBS/ESF. Para ambos, o número de consultas e o intervalo entre estas foram menores que o preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. Conclusão Ainda existem lacunas no acompanhamento ao bebê de risco, segundo as diretrizes preconizadas na Rede Cegonha.