Abstract The aim of this split mouth, double blinded, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of use of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontal pockets. Twenty six patients (15 males, 11 females) diagnosed with generalized periodontitis with Pocket Depth > 5mm and plaque index score < 1.5, were randomly allocated by using computer generated random sequence, into two groups, one treated with intra-pocket application of PRGF adjunct to SRP and other with SRP alone. The clinical outcomes like pocket depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Twenty two patients (44 sites) were analyzed at the end of 6 month follow-up, using SPSS 20.0v software. There was a significant statistical difference observed between both the groups favouring SRP +PRGF group in terms of PD (p = 0.007) and RAL (p = 0.021) at the end of 6 month follow-up. Also there was a statistical significant difference (< 0.001) at all time points compared to baseline, for all parameters in intra-group comparison. Moreover, the sites with PD>4mm necessitating further treatment after 6-month follow-up were significantly lesser for SRP+PRGF group. The use of PRGF technology in non-surgical periodontal therapy, by single intra-pocket application in to periodontal pockets as an adjunct to SRP, in chronic periodontitis patients, was found to be effective in reduction of pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level.
Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.
Abstract Objective This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methodology E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. Results CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). Conclusions Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration, exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) added with surfactants on its penetration into dentinal tubules. Sixty-five extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth with single canals were prepared by ProTaper SX hand-operated instruments. The teeth were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. The crowns and apical thirds of all the teeth were removed. The remaining roots were processed into 4-mm-long blocks and stained overnight in crystal violet. One hundred and thirty stained blocks were further split into halves and treated by nine different types of NaOCl-based solutions. Three solutions were added with surfactants (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra) and the others were regular hypochlorites at increasing concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 5.25%, <6%, 6% NaOCl) from different brands. The dentin blocks were exposed to the solutions for 2, 5, and 20 min at 20 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The depth of NaOCl penetration was determined by bleaching of the stain and measured by light microscopy at 20 and 40. Statistical comparisons were made by using a generalized linear model with Bonferroni's post-hoc correction. The shortest penetration (81±6.6 μm) was obtained after incubation in 1% NaOCl for 2 min at 20 °C; the highest penetration (376.3±3.8 μm) was obtained with Chlor-Xtra for 20 min at 45 °C. Varying NaOCl concentration produced a minimal effect while temperature and exposure time had a significant direct relationship with NaOCl penetration into dentinal tubules, especially those with lowered surface tension. The exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite as well as the addition of surfactants may influence the penetration depth of irrigants into dentinal tubules.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da concentração, tempo de exposição e temperatura de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) acrescidos de tensioativos na penetração nos túbulos dentinários. Sessenta e cinco dentes superiores humanos uniradiculares extraídos foram preparadas usando instrumentos ProTaper SX operados manualmente. Os dentes foram seccionados perpendicularmente ao longo eixo. As coroas e o terço apical foram removidos. Os restantes das raízes foram transformadas em blocos de 4-mm de comprimento e coradas durante em violeta de cristal. Cento e trinta blocos foram posteriormente divididos em metades e tratados por nove tipos diferentes de soluções de NaOCl. Três soluções com tensioativos foram adicionadas (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra); e os outros foram os hipocloritos regulares em concentrações crescentes (1, 2, 4, 5,25, <6 and 6% de NaOCl) de diferentes origens. Os blocos de dentina foram expostos às soluções de 2, 5 e 20 min a 20 °C, 37 °C e 45 °C, respectivamente. A profundidade de penetração do NaOCl foi determinada pelo branqueamento da mancha e medido em microscopia de luz com ampliações de 20× e 40×. Comparações estatísticas foram feitas usando um modelo linear generalizado com a correção de Bonferroni (post-hoc). A menor penetração (81±6,6 m) foi medida após incubação com 1% de hipoclorito de sódio durante 2 min a 20 °C; a maior penetração (376,3±3,8 m) foi obtida com Chlor-Xtra durante 20 min a 45 °C. Variando a concentração do NaOCl verificou-se um efeito mínimo, enquanto que a temperatura e o tempo de exposição teve uma relação significativa direta com a penetração de hipocloritos de sódio, especialmente aqueles com tensão superficial reduzido, nos túbulos dentinários. O tempo de exposição e temperatura do hipoclorito de sódio bem como a adição de agentes tensioativos pode influenciar significativamente a profundidade de penetração de soluções irrigantes nos túbulos dentinários.
This prospective clinical study aimed to evaluate the benefits of the endoscope as an aid to root-end management, and to assess the treatment outcome during 2 years following surgery. Forty-three endodontic surgical procedures in 30 patients were performed with the aid of an endoscope and followed for a period of 2 years. Radiographic criteria and clinical evaluation were used to assess the outcome. All cases were evaluated in terms of healing and functionality. 91.1% and 90.7% of the teeth evaluated after 1 and 2 years, respectively, were classified as successful. We found no statistically significant differences for both healing and functionality between the 1- and 2-year evaluations. No difference related to tooth type or tooth location was found at the 2-year follow-up. Fisher's exact test was used to statistically assess the difference between successful and unsuccessful cases for each of the variables considered. The endoscope can be an aid for endodontic surgical procedures in terms of both periapical healing and functionality up to 2 years follow-up.