RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as características epidemiológicas e clínicas de pacientes com infecção confirmada pelo SARS-CoV-2, diagnosticados e tratados no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, que admitiu os primeiros pacientes com essa condição no Brasil. Métodos Neste estudo retrospectivo, de centro único, incluímos todos os casos com confirmação laboratorial de COVID-19 no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, em São Paulo (SP) de fevereiro a março de 2020. Foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos. Resultados Foram incluídos 510 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (56,9%), com média de idade de 40 anos. Foi relatada história de contato próximo com um caso positivo/suspeito por 61,1% dos pacientes, e 34,4% tinham história de viagens internacionais recentes. Os sintomas mais comuns foram febre (67,5%), congestão nasal (42,4%), tosse (41,6%) e mialgia/artralgia (36,3%). A tomografia computadorizada de tórax foi realizada em 78 (15,3%) pacientes, e 93,6% deles apresentaram resultados anormais. A hospitalização foi necessária para 72 (14%) pacientes, e 20 (27,8%) foram admitidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Quanto ao tratamento clínico, os medicamentos mais utilizados foram antibióticos intravenosos (84,7%), cloroquina (45,8%) e oseltamivir (31,9%). A ventilação mecânica invasiva foi necessária em 65% dos pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. O tempo médio de internação foi 9 dias para todos os pacientes (22 e 7 dias para pacientes que necessitaram ou não de cuidados intensivos, respectivamente). Apenas um (1,38%) paciente morreu durante o acompanhamento. Conclusão Estes resultados podem ser relevantes para o Brasil e outros países com características semelhantes, que começaram a lidar com essa pandemia.
ABSTRACT Objective This study describes epidemiological and clinical features of patients with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed and treated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein , which admitted the first patients with this condition in Brazil. Methods In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein , São Paulo, Brazil, from February until March 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were analyzed. Results A total of 510 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in this study. Most patients were male (56.9%) with a mean age of 40 years. A history of a close contact with a positive/suspected case was reported by 61.1% of patients and 34.4% had a history of recent international travel. The most common symptoms upon presentation were fever (67.5%), nasal congestion (42.4%), cough (41.6%) and myalgia/arthralgia (36.3%). Chest computed tomography was performed in 78 (15.3%) patients, and 93.6% of those showed abnormal results. Hospitalization was required for 72 (14%) patients and 20 (27.8%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Regarding clinical treatment, the most often used medicines were intravenous antibiotics (84.7%), chloroquine (45.8%) and oseltamivir (31.9%). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required by 65% of Intensive Care Unit patients. The mean length of stay was 9 days for all patients (22 and 7 days for patients requiring or not intensive care, respectively). Only one patient (1.38%) died during follow-up. Conclusion These results may be relevant for Brazil and other countries with similar characteristics, which are starting to deal with this pandemic.
OBJECTIVES: The number of bariatric procedures has significantly increased in Brazil, especially in the public Unified Health System. The present study describes health outcomes and medication use in obese patients treated in a major hospital that performs publicly funded surgery in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective, single center study was conducted to collect real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use in 247 obese patients (female, 82.2%) who underwent open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Changes in weight and body mass index (BMI), presence of apnea, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and medication use (hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia) were assessed preoperatively and up to 24 months postoperatively. The mean cost of medications was calculated for the 12-month preoperative and 24-month postoperative periods. RESULTS: During the surgery, the mean age of patients was 43.42 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.9 years), and mean BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 (SD, 6.7 kg/m2). At 24 months, significant declines were noted in weight (mean, -37.6 kg), BMI (mean, -14.3 kg/m2); presence of T2D, hypertension, and apnea (-29.6%, -50.6%, and -20.9%, respectively); and number of patients using medications (-66.67% for diabetes, -41.86% for hypertension, and -55.26% for dyslipidemia). The mean cost of medications (total costs for all medications) decreased by >50% in 12-24 postoperative months compared to that in 12 preoperative months. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass successfully reduced weight, BMI, and comorbidities and medication use and cost at 24 months in Brazilian patients treated in the public Unified Health System.
OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is associated with obesity and weight loss after bariatric surgery and has been related to its changing pattern. Exactly how the bacterial population affects weight loss and the results of surgery remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal microbiota of superobese patients before and after gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). METHOD: DNA fragments for the microbiota obtained from stool samples collected from nine superobese patients before and after bariatric surgery were sequenced using Ion Torrent. RESULTS: We observed that with a mean follow-up of 15 months, patients achieved 55.9% excess weight loss (EWL). A significant population reduction in the Proteobacteria phylum (11 to 2%, p=0.0025) was observed after surgery, while no difference was seen in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Further analyses performed with two specific individuals with divergent clinical outcomes showed a change in the pattern between them, with a significant increase in Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes in the patient with less weight loss (%EWL 50.79 vs. 61.85). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB affects the microbiota of superobese patients, with a significant reduction in Proteobacteria in patients with different weight loss, showing that different bacteria may contribute to the process.
PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is an antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of many neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent side effect of CYP. Several studies show that simvastatin has important pleiotropic (anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory) effects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on bladder, ureter and kidney injury caused by CYP. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. The CYP/SIM group received simvastatin microemulsion by gavage during 7 days (10 mg/kg body wt) before the administration of CYP and the CYP/SAL group rats received saline 0.9%. The control rats were not treated. After that, all rats were treated with a single dose of CYP 200 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally. The rats were killed 24 h after CYP administration. Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) were measured by ELISA. Macro and light microscopic study was performed in the bladder, kidney and ureter. RESULTS: In the bladders of CYP/SIMV treated rats edema of lamina propria with epithelial and sub-epithelial hemorrhage were lower than in CYP/SAL treated rats. The scores for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of bladder and ureter were significantly lower in CYP/SIMV rats than in CYP/SAL rats. The kidney was not affected. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was significatly lower in CF/SINV rats (164.8±22, 44.8±8 and 52.4±13) than in CF/SAL rats (378.5±66, 122.9±26 e 123.6±18), respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study suggest that simvastatin pretreatment attenuated CYP-induced urotelium inflammation and decreased the activities of cytokines.
OBJETIVO: Ciclofosfamida (CF) é um agente antineoplásico frequente implicado na etiologia da cistite hemorrágica. Vários estudos mostram que a sinvastatina tem importantes efeitos pleiotrópicos (anti-inflamatórios e imunomoduladores). O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da sinvastatina na prevenção de cistite hemorrágica e lesões uroteliais induzidas por CF em modelo experimental. MÉTODOS: Doze ratos Wistar foram distribuídos de forma randomizada em três grupos: nos ratos do grupo experimental (CF/SINV), foi administrada microemulsão de sinvastatina 10mg/Kg, por via oral (gavagem), durante 7 dias antes da administração de CF e os ratos do grupo controle (CF/SAL), foram tratados com solução salina 0,9% nas mesmas doses e prazos. O grupo controle não foi tratado. Todos os ratos foram tratados com CF 200mg/Kg intraperitonial (dose única) e 24 horas após foram sacrificados. Exame macro e microscópico foi feito na bexiga e os rins e ureteres foram avaliados microscopia. Foram realizadas dosagens plasmáticas de TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 (ELISA). RESULTADOS: O escore para avaliação macroscópica do dano à bexiga e o escore para avaliação do dano histológico na bexiga e nos ureteres mostraram-se significativamente menores no grupo CF/SINV em comparação ao grupo CF/SAL (p<0,05). Os rins não foram afetados. A expressão de TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 também foi significativamente menor (p<0,05) no grupo CF/SINV (164,8±22, 44,8±8 e 52,4±13) em comparação ao grupo CF/SAL (378,5±66, 122,9±26 e 123,6±18), respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou eficácia da sinvastatina na atenuação da cistite hemorrágica e lesão ureteral induzidas por CF em ratos Wistar, através da interferência nas citocinas plasmáticas e nas lesões uroteliais.