ABSTRACT Introduction: This study analyzed the impact of the experience with Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP) on the initial experience with Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) by examining perioperative results and early outcomes of 110 patients. LRPs were performed by two ro-botic fellowship trained surgeons with daily practice in RALP. Patients and Methods: 110 LRP were performed to treat aleatory selected patients. The patients were divided into 4 groups for prospective analyses. A transperitoneal approach that simulates the RALP technique was used. Results: The median operative time was 163 minutes (110-240), and this time significantly decreased through case 40, when the time plateaued (p=0.0007). The median blood loss was 250mL. No patients required blood transfusion. There were no life-threatening complications or deaths. Minor complications were uniformly distributed along the series (P=0.6401). The overall positive surgical margins (PSM) rate was 28.2% (20% in pT2 and 43.6% in pT3). PSM was in the prostate apex in 61.3% of cases. At the 12-month follow-up, 88% of men were continent (0-1 pad). Conclusions: The present study shows that there are multiple learning curves for LRP. The shallowest learning curve was seen for the operative time. Surgeons transitioning between the RALP and LRP techniques were considered competent based on the low perioperative complication rate, absence of major complications, and lack of blood transfusions. This study shows that a learning curve still exists and that there are factors that must be considered by surgeons transitioning between the two techniques.
Purpose The discovery of new diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) has become an important field of research. In this study, we analyzed the diagnostic value of the expression of the pepsinogen C (PGC) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) genes in tissue samples obtained from prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods This study was comprised of 51 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies between January 2010 and March 2010. The biopsies were performed with 12 cores, and an additional core was randomly retrieved from the peripheral zone from each patient for study purposes. The expression of the PGC and PSMA genes was analyzed from the cDNA from the samples via the qRT-PCR technology. The expression patterns of patients with PCa were compared with those of patients without a PCa diagnosis. Results PSMA was overexpressed in only 43.4% of PCa cases, and PGC was overexpressed in 72.7% of cases. The median expression of PSMA was 1.5 times (0.1 to 43.9) and the median PGC expression was 8.7 times (0.1 to 50.0) the expression observed in prostatic tissue from TRUS-guided biopsies of normal patients. Analysis of patients with high-risk PCa indicated that PGC was overexpressed in 71.4% of cases (with a median expression of 10.6 times), and PSMA was overexpressed in only 35.7% of cases (with a median expression of 4.5 times). Among patients with low-risk PCa, PGC was also overexpressed in 71.4% of cases (with a median expression of 5.9 times), and PSMA was overexpressed in only 42.8% of cases (with a median expression of 2.5 times). Conclusions PGC gene expression is significantly higher in prostatic tissue in men affected by PCa when compared to normal prostates. Further analyses are necessary to confirm our results.
PurposeBladder cancer (BC) is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract, with high mortality. The knowledge of the molecular pathways associated with BC carcinogenesis is crucial to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by acting directly on mRNAs. miR-145 has been considered as a tumor suppressor, which targets the c-MYC, MUC-1 and FSCN1 genes. Our aim was to evaluate the expression profile of miR-145 in low-grade non-invasive and high-grade invasive bladder urothelial carcinomas.Materials and MethodsWe studied 30 specimens of low-grade, non-invasive pTa and 30 of pT2/pT3 high-grade invasive UC obtained by transurethral resection or radical cystectomy, followed over a mean time of 16.1 months. Normal controls were represented by five samples of normal bladder biopsy from patients who underwent retropubic prostatectomy to treat BPH. miRNA extraction and cDNA generation were performed using commercial kits. Analysis was performed by qRT-PCR, and miR-145 expression was calculated using the 2-∆∆ct method; we used RNU-43 and RNU-48 as endogenous controls.ResultsmiR-145 was under-expressed in 73.3% and 86.7% of pTa and pT2/pT3, respectively, with expression means of 1.61 for the former and 0.66 for the last. There were no significant differences in miR-145 expression and histological grade, tumor stage, angiolymphatic neoplastic invasion and tumor recurrence.ConclusionmiR-145 is under-expressed in low-grade, non-invasive and high-grade invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma and may play an important role in the carcinogenesis pathway, being an interesting candidate diagnostic marker.
OBJECTIVE: Partial nephrectomy for small kidney tumors has increased in the last decades, and the approach to non-palpable endophytic tumors became a challenge, with larger chances of positive margins or complications. The aim of this study is to describe an alternative nephron-sparing approach for small endophytic kidney tumors through anatrophic nephrotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing partial nephrectomy at our institution was performed and the subjects with endophytic tumors treated with anatrophic nephrotomy were identified. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes and oncological results were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the partial nephrectomies performed for intraparenchymal tumors between 06/2006 and 06/2010, ten patients were submitted to anatrophic nephrotomy. The mean patient age was 42 yrs, and the mean tumor size was 2.3 cm. Mean warm ischemia time was 22.4 min and the histopathological analysis showed 80% of clear cell carcinomas. At a mean follow-up of 36 months, no significant creatinine changes or local or systemic recurrences were observed. CONCLUSION: The operative technique described is a safe and effective nephron-sparing option for complete removal of endophytic renal tumors.
PURPOSE: A great number of small renal lesions have now been detected. Nowadays, partial nephrectomy has more frequently been adopted for surgical treatment of earlier stage disease. Previous studies have associated patient, institutional, and health care system factors with surgery type. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) according to hospital type, public versus private, in our country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery between 2003 and 2007 in two hospitals, one private and one public. Patient demographic, clinical, surgery, and pathologic characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: The radical nephrectomy rate was higher at the public hospital than at the private hospital (75% vs. 57%, p = 0.008). Overall, patients at the public hospital presented larger tumors than did the patients who were cared for privately. Furthermore, small renal masses were significantly more prevalent in private care (57.8% vs. 28.3%). Patients at the public hospital showed a higher incidence of capsular invasion (p = 0.008), perirenal fat invasion (p < 0.01), lymph node involvement (p < 0.001), and a lower incidence of initial tumors. pT1 tumors were reported in 41% of patients at the public hospital and in 72% at the private hospital (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with RCC cared for at our public referral hospital showed a more advanced stage than RCC treated at the private institution.
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p < 0.001). A multivariate Cox regression analysis for the risk of disease recurrence demonstrated that only PSA levels, Gleason score, seminal vesicle involvement and SES were statistically significant variables. Patients with a low SES presented 1.8 times the risk of recurrence as compared to patients with a high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low SES were older, presented more aggressive PCa characteristics and a high rate of disease recurrence. A low SES constituted an independent predictor for disease recurrence.
PURPOSE: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most treatment-resistant malignancies and nephrectomy, isolated or combined with systemic chemotherapy typically has limited or no effectiveness. We report our initial results in patients treated with the association of molecular targeted therapy, nephrectomy, and hybrid dendritic-tumor cell (DC) vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two male patients diagnosed with metastatic RCC were selected for the study. They were treated with the triple strategy, in which sunitinib (50 mg per day) was given for 4 weeks, followed by radical nephrectomy after two weeks. DC vaccine was initiated immediately after surgery and repeated monthly. Sunitinib was restarted daily after 2 to 3 weeks of surgery with a 7-day interval every 4 weeks. RESULTS: Both patients had complete adherence to the proposed treatment with DC vaccine therapy combined with sunitinib. Follow-up in these patients at 9 and 10 months demonstrated a stable disease in both, as shown by imaging and clinical findings, with no further treatment required. CONCLUSION: The immune response obtained with DC vaccine combined with the antiangiogenic effect of sunitinib and the potential benefits of cytoreductive nephrectomy in advanced disease could represent a new option in the treatment of metastatic RCC. Further prospective trials are needed not only to elucidate the ideal dosing and schedule, but also to better define the proof-of-concept proposed in this report and its role in clinical practice.
PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP) in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%), pT3 (23%), pT4 (4%), and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.
PURPOSE: The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been rising by 2.3 to 4.3% every year over the past three decades. Previously, RCC has been known as the internist’s tumor; however, it is now being called the radiologist’s tumor because 2/3 are now detected incidentally on abdominal imaging. We compared patients who were treated toward the end of the 20th century to those treated during the beginning of the 21st century with regard to RCC size and type of surgical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 226 patients. For analysis of tumor size, we considered a cut point of < 4 cm and > 4 cm. For analysis of type of surgery performed, we considered radical and partial nephrectomy. RESULTS: After the turn of the century, there was a reduction of 1.57 ± 0.48 cm in the size of the RCC that was operated on. Nephron sparing surgeries were performed in 17% of the cases until the year 2000, and 39% of the tumors were < 4 cm. From 2001, 64% of the tumors measured < 4 cm and 42% of the surgeries were performed using nephron sparing techniques. Mean tumor size was 5.95 cm (± 3.58) for the cases diagnosed before year 2000, and cases treated after the beginning of 21st century had a mean tumor size of 4.38 cm (± 3.27). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the end of the 20th century, at the beginning of the 21st century due to a reduction in tumor size it was possible to increase the number of nephron sparing surgeries.
Objective: The incidence of solid renal masses has increased sharply in recent years due to widespread use of abdominal imaging studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of benign lesions in solid renal masses according to tumor size. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 305 patients with 328 renal solid masses treated by surgery. Based on a report by one pathologist, the specimen tumor size and the histology of each lesion were tabulated. The frequency of renal cell carcinoma and benign renal lesions was evaluated and a correlation between tumor size and pathological features of the masses was observed. Results: The frequency of malignant lesions in the 328 renal masses was 83.2%. When lesions were stratified into groups with diameters ≤ 3 cm or > 3 cm, the incidence of benign histology was 22.9% and 13.3%, respectively (p = 0.026). The odds ratios for finding a benign lesion in masses ≤ 3 cm was 1.93 (IC 95%, 1.07 - 3.46) compared to masses > 3 cm. Conclusion: The incidence of benign lesions is significantly higher in renal masses smaller than 3 cm in diameter, which should be taken in account when the treatment of renal solid masses is planned.
OBJECTIVE: Cancer detection has been reported in up to 27% of patients when lowering the PSA cutoff to 2.5 ng/mL. Although this practice could increase the number of biopsies performed, it also could lead to more frequent detection of significant prostate cancers at an organ-confined stage and/or a less aggressive state. This study describes the incidence of malignancy and tumor characteristics in extended prostate biopsies with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 1081 patients where examined, 275 (25.4%) patients had PSA level ≤ 4 ng/mL. RESULTS: Cancer was diagnosed in 32.0% and 35.7% of patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL and > 4 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.906). The median Gleason score was 7 independent of PSA > or ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.078). The median number of cores positive for tumor was 4 and 3, respectively, for PSA > 4 ng/mL and PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.627). There was a difference in the total percent of tumors involving all cores, 11% and 7% for PSA > or ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.042). Fifty-six patients underwent radical prostatectomy, 12 had PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL. In both groups, a diagnosis of cancer was accurate with no differences in Gleason score, tumor volume or staging for both groups. CONCLUSION: When PSA is below 4 ng/mL, cancer is detected in a proportion equal to the proportion diagnosed with a PSA > 4 ng/mL, and tumor characteristics are similar between the two groups. Only clinically significant tumors were diagnosed following radical prostatectomy.
OBJECTIVE: According to several studies, when the histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma is established it is possible to attribute a different life expectancy to each patient. We analyzed the prognostic significance of the histological subtype in renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed the follow-up of 230 patients after radical or conservative renal surgery. The histological characteristics of the different subtypes of tumor were obtained and the disease-free and cancer-specific survival curves for the clear cell, cromophobic, papillary, collecting duct (Bellini) subtypes and those with sarcomatoid differentiation were individualized. RESULTS: The disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates for clear cell tumors were 76.6% and 68.0% respectively, 71.2% and 82.1% respectively for the cromophobic type, 71.1% and 79.8% respectively for the papillary type, 26.9% and 39.3% respectively for the sarcomatoid type, and 0.0% and 0.0% respectively for the collecting ducts (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The histological subtypes of renal tumors can stratify patients into different prognostic groups only when the sarcomatoid differentiation is present.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas who are treated surgically and to analyze the occurrence of bladder tumors as well as the development of metastases outside the urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of 25 patients treated between February 1994 and August 2006. The variables analyzed were: patient age, gender, and clinical presentation; diagnostic methods; pathologic characteristics at the primary site of the tumor (pelvis or ureter); tumor stage and grade; and presence of carcinoma in situ, microvascular invasion and squamous differentiation. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Log-Rank test were used for statistical analysis of bladder recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of patients were male, and macroscopic hematuria was the most common clinical presentation. The majority of cases (56%) were infiltrative (T2-T3) and high-grade (76%) tumors. Synchronous or metachronous bladder tumors were found in 72% of cases. Five (20%) patients had a history of bladder tumor before the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. The mean follow-up period was 36 months (range: 1.5 to 156). During the follow-up period, eleven (44%) patients developed bladder tumors. After five years, the probability of being free of bladder tumor recurrence was 40%. No pathological variable was predictive for bladder tumor recurrence. Four patients presented disease recurrence outside the urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metachronous bladder tumors is more often observed after the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. All of these patients should undergo rigorous follow-up during the postoperative period. Only patients with infiltrative and high-grade tumors developed metastases outside the urinary tract.
INTRODUCTION: Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer. It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aim to analyze follow-up biopsies on patients who initially received a benign diagnosis after exclusion of HGPIN and ASAP. METHODS: From July 2000 to December 2003, 1177 patients were submitted to sextant extended prostate biopsy in our hospital. The mean patient age was 65.5 years old, and the median number of fragments collected at biopsy was 13. HGPIN and ASAP were excluded from our study. We only considered patients who had a diagnosis of benign at the first biopsy and were subjected to rebiopsies up until May 2005 because of a maintained suspicion of cancer. RESULTS: Cancer was initially detected in 524 patients (44.5%), and the diagnosis was benign in 415 (35.3%). Rebiopsy was indicated for 76 of the latter patients (18.3%) because of a persistent suspicion of cancer. Eight cases of adenocarcinoma (10.5%) were detected, six (75%) at the first rebiopsy. Six patients were submitted to radical prostatectomy, and all tumors were considered clinically significant. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that in extended prostate biopsy, the first biopsy detects more cancer, and the first, second, and third rebiopsies after an initial benign diagnosis succeed in finding cancer in 7.9% (6/55), 5.9% (1/15) and 20% (1/4) of patients, respectively.
Recent advances in techniques of imaging and ablation have led to the application of several minimally invasive modalities, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with a success rate varying from 79 to 96% and a serious complication rate of 1 to 4% in the treatment of small renal tumors. The authors report on the case of a 67-year-old patient with a radiofrequency ablation complication, stenosis of the ureteropelvic junction in one kidney, and analyze the results of this modality for the treatment of renal tumors.