Abstract The climate change projections for the Caatinga biome this century are for an increase in temperature and reduction in rainfall, leading to aridization and plant cover dominated by Cactaceae. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., a cactus that is native to the Caatinga biome, considering two possible future climate scenarios, to assess this species’ spatio-temporal response to these climate change, and thus to evaluate the need or not for conservation measures. For this purpose, we obtained biogeographic information on the target species from biodiversity databases, choosing nine environmental variables and applying the MaxEnt algorithm. We considered the time intervals 2041-2060 and 2061-2080, centered on 2050 and 2070, respectively, and the greenhouse gas scenarios RCP4.5 and 8.5. For all the scenarios considered, the models generated for 2050 and 2070 projected drastic contraction (greater than 80%) for the areas of potential occurrence of the species in relation to the present potential. The remaining areas were found to be concentrated in the northern portion of the biome, specifically in the northern part of the state of Ceará, which has particular characteristics.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on irrigation water demand of melon plants grown in Jaguaribe-Apodi Irrigation District (DIJA), which is located between the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, in Northeastern Brazil. Future scenarios were developed using the Eta-CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections, after being submitted to downscaling method. We used a set of climate data from the same model for the period of 1961 through 1990, and further projections after bias correction. Local geographic coordinates were interpolated using GIS techniques. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was estimated from the monthly minimum and maximum mean temperatures, using a limited data method. The rainfall, temperature, ETo, and water demand future projections were mapped for the area of investigation to analyze spatial variability. ETA model simulations for climatic change showed growth in irrigation water demands due to evapotranspiration increase (from 28.4% to 33.4%), even though rainfall increases (between 61.9% and 89.9%). The increase in the average gross water demand is varied from 37.5% to 78.2% within the period of 2031 to 2060, respective to the common planting season.