Old age is a risk factor for cancer development in humans and animals, and studies have shown that tumors in animals are acceptable models for studying human cancers, considering the similarities between their factors. This work was conducted in a 53-year-old captive female common hippo (Hippopotamus amphibious) with a left leg tumor and metastatic mass. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out with a final diagnosis of a high grade pleomorphic sarcoma. A proteomic study using mass spectrometry was added in order to identify further aspects of the primary tumor and metastasis which could improve our understanding, and each tissue showed a proteomic profile indicative of its pathologic state with significant differences between healthy tissue, primary and metastatic tumors. Low levels of β-actin in primary tumors were identified, and this may be associated with a possible consequence of cytoskeleton dynamic modification. In metastatic tissue, these dynamics may be affected by the presence of HSP chaperone 60.
ABSTRACT Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare and aggressive disease that is associated with high rates of recurrence and death. Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) with excision of the bladder cuff is considered the standard of care for high-risk UTUC, whereas kidney-sparing techniques can be indicated for select patients with low-risk disease. There is a significant lack of clinical and pathological prognostic factors for stratifying patients with regard to making treatment decisions. Incorporation of tissue-based molecular markers into prognostic tools could help accurately stratify patients for clinical decision-making in this heterogeneous disease. Although the number of studies on tissue-based markers in UTUC has risen dramatically in the past several years—many of which are based on single centers and small cohorts, with a low level of evidence—many discrepancies remain between their results. Nevertheless, certain biomarkers are promising tools, necessitating prospective multi-institution studies to validate their function.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze glucose transporter 1 expression patterns in malignant tumors of various cell types and evaluate their diagnostic value by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: Glucose is the major source of energy for cells, and glucose transporter 1 is the most common glucose transporter in humans. Glucose transporter 1 is aberrantly expressed in several tumor types. Studies have implicated glucose transporter 1 expression as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in tumors, primarily in conjunction with positron emission tomography scan data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 was performed in tissue microarray slides, comprising 1955 samples of malignant neoplasm from different cell types. RESULTS: Sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas and hepatoblastomas did not express glucose transporter 1. Fortyseven per cent of prostate adenocarcinomas were positive, as were 29% of thyroid, 10% of gastric and 5% of breast adenocarcinomas. Thirty-six per cent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were positive, as were 42% of uterine cervix squamous cell carcinomas. Glioblastomas and retinoblastomas showed membranous glucose transporter 1 staining in 18.6% and 9.4% of all cases, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas displayed membranous expression, whereas adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 expression. CONCLUSION: Glucose transporter 1 showed variable expression in various tumor types. Its absence in sarcomas, melanomas, hepatoblastomas and lymphomas suggests that other glucose transporters mediate the glycolytic pathway in these tumors. The data suggest that glucose transporter 1 is a valuable immunohistochemical marker that can be used to identify patients for evaluation by positron emission tomography scan. The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined.
BACKGROUND: Synovial sarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor more frequently affecting young adults and has a 5 year disease specific survival of 57-63%. The present study describes the institutional experience with the treatment of this tumor, emphasizing associations between clinical variables, patterns of recurrence and survival. METHODS: Between 1970 and 2001, 57 patients were identified with synovial sarcomas. Demographic, clinical and histological factors were analyzed. Associations between clinical variables and 5 year local recurrence free, metastasis free and disease specific survival were calculated. RESULTS: Median patient age was 26 years, 56% were male and 79% caucasians. Tumors were located in the lower limb in 74%, proximally in 53%.The most common symptom was the presence of tumor in 42%. At admission, 18% were intact, 42% manipulated and 40% recurrent. Most of them were larger than 5 cm, 3 patients had lymph node metastasis. The most common procedure was extensive resection, 30% were amputated. Wide margins were obtained in 65%, 51% were biphasic tumors. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 46%, 56% had adjuvant therapy. The 5 year local recurrence free, metastasis free and disease specific survival were 60±8%, 47±7% e 58±7%. Proximal location was associated with limb sparing procedures (p=0.001), close margins (p=0.006) and biphasic tumors (p=0.047). CONCLUSION: Data support the hypothesis that this is an aggressive tumor, with high rates of local and remote recurrences. The survival obtained was comparable to other reference centers. Treatment outside these centers should be discouraged.
OBJETIVOS: Os sarcomas sinoviais são tumores raros e agressivos que acometem adultos jovens, com sobrevida doençaespecífica em cinco anos de 57 a 63%. O presente estudo analisa a experiência institucional com este tumor, dando ênfase à associação entre variáveis clínicas, padrões de recorrência e sobrevida. MÉTODO: Entre 1970 e 2001 foram identificados 57 pacientes com sarcomas sinoviais. Fatores demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos foram pesquisados. Associações entre variáveis clínicas e a sobrevida livre de recidiva local, livre de metástases e doença-específica em cinco anos foram calculadas. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana dos pacientes foi 26 anos, 56% eram masculinos, 79% eram brancos. Localizavam-se em membro inferior em 74%, proximalmente em 53%. O sintoma mais comum foi a presença de tumor em 42%. Na admissão 18% eram intactos, 42% manipulados e 40% recidivados. A maioria era maior que 5 cm., e três pacientes apresentavam metástase linfonodal. A cirurgia mais freqüente foi ressecção ampla, 30% necessitou amputação. Margens amplas foram obtidas em 65%, 51% eram tumores bifásicos. Neoadjuvância foi utilizada em 46% e adjuvância em 58% dos casos. As sobrevidas livre de recidiva local , metástases e doença específica em cinco anos foram 60±8%, 47±7% e 58±7%. A localização proximal do tumor associou-se com preservação de membro (p=-0,001), margens inadequadas (p=0,006) e subtipo bifásico (p=0,047). CONCLUSÕES: Os dados confirmam a hipótese de tratar-se de tumor agressivo, com altos índices de recidiva local e à distância. Os resultados do tratamento são comparáveis a outros centros especializados. Tratamento fora destes centros deve ser desencorajado.