OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do inibidor não-seletivo da ciclooxigenase, cetoprofeno (ceto) intravenoso, em alterações histológicas e dos níveis das citocinas renais - fator α de necrose tumoral (TNF- α) e interleucina 1 (IL-1) - após hemorragia de 30% da volemia (10%, três vezes, em intervalos de 10 min). MÉTODOS: Sob anestesia com sevoflurano (sevo), os grupos sevo e sevo+ceto (10 ratos cada) foram preparados cirurgicamente para leitura de pressão arterial média (PAM) e administração de solução de Ringer (5 mL/kg/h) e de cetoprofeno (1,5 mg/kg), no início da anestesia, no grupo sevo+ceto. Mediu-se temperatura retal continuamente. Os valores de temperatura e PAM foram observados antes da primeira hemorragia (T1), após a terceira hemorragia (T2) e 30 min após T2 (T3). Realizada nefrectomia bilateral nos dois grupos para análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: Nos dois grupos, temperatura e PAM diminuíram com relação aos valores basais. Hipotermia foi mais acentuada no grupo sevo (p=0,0002). Necrose tubular foi mais frequente no grupo sevo (p=0,02). As citocinas estiveram igualmente presentes nos rins dos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Cetoprofeno foi mais protetor no rim de rato durante anestesia com sevoflurano e hipovolemia, porém parece que TNF- α e IL-1 não estão envolvidas nessa proteção.
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of intravenous nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ketoprofen (keto), on kidney histological changes and kidney cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), levels after hemorrhage of 30% of volemia (three times 10%, intervals of 10 min) in rats. METHODS: Under sevoflurane (sevo) anesthesia, sevo and sevo+keto groups (10 rats each) were instrumented for Ringer solution (5mL/kg/h) administration and mean arterial pressure (MAP) evaluation, plus keto (1.5mg/kg) administration in sevo+keto group in the beginning of anesthesia. Rectal temperature was continuously measured. The baseline data of temperature and MAP were collected at the first hemorrhage (T1), the third hemorrhage (T2) and 30min after T2 (T3). Bilateral nephrectomy was achieved for histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In both groups, temperature and MAP diminished from initial values. Hypothermia was greater in sevo group (p=0.0002). Tubular necrosis was more frequent in sevo group (p=0.02). The studied cytokines were equally present in the kidneys of both groups. CONCLUSION: Ketoprofen was more protective to the rat kidney in condition of anesthesia with sevoflurane and hypovolemia, but it seems that TNF-α and IL-1 were not involved in that protection.
This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality. Studies were identified by searching the Medline and Scielo databases, followed by a manual search for relevant articles. Our review includes studies published between 1954 and 2007. Each publication was reviewed to identify author(s), study period, data source, perioperative mortality rates, and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Thirty-three trials were assessed. Brazilian and worldwide studies demonstrated a similar decline in anesthesia-related mortality rates, which amounted to fewer than 1 death per 10,000 anesthetics in the past two decades. Perioperative mortality rates also decreased during this period, with fewer than 20 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics in developed countries. Brazilian studies showed higher perioperative mortality rates, from 19 to 51 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics. The majority of perioperative deaths occurred in neonates, children under one year, elderly patients, males, patients of ASA III physical status or poorer, emergency surgeries, during general anesthesia, and cardiac surgery followed by thoracic, vascular, gastroenterologic, pediatric and orthopedic surgeries. The main causes of anesthesia-related mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events related to anesthesia and drug administration. Our systematic review of the literature shows that perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil than in developed countries, while anesthesia-related mortality rates are similar in Brazil and in developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with cardiocirculatory and airway events. These data may be useful in developing strategies to prevent anesthesia-related deaths.