Abstract Brazil, the world’s largest citros producer, yields around 19 million tons per year and exports most part of its production as orange juice. Essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves, fruit and flowers of many species of the genus Citrus have been widely used as the result of their promising bioactivities. The fungus Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill., an agent which causes soft rot in fruit, has been considered one of the main factors that cause postharvest diseases, thus, leading to major economic losses in agribusiness. This research aimed at evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro antifungal effect of EOs from two varieties of fresh Citrus sinensis (lima orange and bahia navel orange) peel on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation, which was carried out by a Clevenger-type apparatus, while their chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limonene was the major monoterpene identified in EOs from lima orange (95.2%) and bahia navel orange (93.2%) peel. EOs from lima orange and bahia navel orange inhibited 91.95% and 80.05% mycelial growth of R. stolonifer, respectively, at the highest dose under evaluation (100 µL). This study revealed the biotechnological potential of EOs extracted from fruit peel of two varieties of citros which may applied to biofilm preparation, so as to coat and preserve different types of fruit.
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze symptoms at different times of day in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional observational study conducted at eight centers in Brazil. We evaluated morning, daytime, and nighttime symptoms in patients with stable COPD. Results: We included 593 patients under regular treatment, of whom 309 (52.1%) were male and 92 (15.5%) were active smokers. The mean age was 67.7 years, and the mean FEV1 was 49.4% of the predicted value. In comparison with the patients who had mild or moderate symptoms, the 183 (30.8%) with severe symptoms were less physically active (p = 0.002), had greater airflow limitation (p < 0.001), had more outpatient exacerbations (p = 0.002) and more inpatient exacerbations (p = 0.043), as well as scoring worse on specific instruments. The most common morning and nighttime symptoms were dyspnea (in 45.2% and 33.1%, respectively), cough (in 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively), and wheezing (in 24.4% and 27.0%, respectively). The intensity of daytime symptoms correlated strongly with that of morning symptoms (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of nighttime symptoms (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), as well as with the COPD Assessment Test score (r = 0.62; p < 0.001), although it showed only a weak correlation with FEV1 (r = −0.205; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Dyspnea was more common in the morning than at night. Having morning or nighttime symptoms was associated with greater daytime symptom severity. Symptom intensity was strongly associated with poor quality of life and with the frequency of exacerbations, although it was weakly associated with airflow limitation.
RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os sintomas em diferentes momentos do dia em pacientes com DPOC. Métodos: Estudo observacional multicêntrico de corte transversal em oito centros brasileiros. Foram avaliados os sintomas matinais, diurnos e noturnos em pacientes com DPOC estável. Resultados: Foram incluídos 593 pacientes em tratamento regular, sendo 309 (52,1%) do sexo masculino e 92 (15,5%) fumantes ativos. A média de idade foi de 67,7 anos, e a média de VEF1 foi de 49,4% do valor previsto. Os pacientes com sintomas mais graves (n = 183; 30,8%), em comparação com aqueles com sintomas leves e moderados, apresentaram pior nível de atividade física (p = 0,002), maior limitação ao fluxo aéreo (p < 0,001), exacerbações ambulatoriais (p = 0,002) e hospitalares (p = 0,043) mais frequentemente e piores resultados em instrumentos específicos. Os sintomas matinais e noturnos mais frequentes foram dispneia (em 45,2% e 33,1%, respectivamente), tosse (em 37,5% e 33,3%, respectivamente) e chiado (em 24,4% e 27,0%, respectivamente). Houve forte correlação da intensidade dos sintomas diurnos com sintomas matinais (r = 0,65, p < 0,001), sintomas noturnos (r = 0,60, p < 0,001), bem como com o escore do COPD Assessment Test (r = 0,62; p < 0,001); porém, houve uma correlação fraca com VEF1 (r = −0,205; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A dispneia foi mais frequente no período matinal do que no período noturno. Ter sintomas matinais e/ou noturnos foi associado à pior gravidade dos sintomas diurnos. A intensidade dos sintomas foi fortemente associada a pior qualidade de vida e frequência de exacerbações, mas fracamente associada à limitação ao fluxo aéreo.
A dermatite atópica (DA) é a patologia cutânea inflamatória mais frequente nos países desenvolvidos sendo frequentemente a primeira manifestação de doença alérgica. Surge habitualmente nos dois primeiros anos de vida, sendo que quando persiste na idade adulta tende a ser mais grave. A sua fisiopatologia é complexa envolvendo factores genéticos e ambientais. O tratamento das formas mais graves inclui a utilização de terapêutica imunossupressora sistémica, sendo o único tratamento on label na Europa nesta categoria, a ciclosporina. O Dupilumab é um anticorpo monoclonal totalmente humano que inibe a sinalização IL-4/IL-13 estando indicado nas formas de dermatite atópica mais graves. Este protocolo clínico pretende estabelecer de acordo com as guidelines internacionais, quais as recomendações clinicas para a utilização de dupilumab em doentes adultos com DA moderada a grave, quais as contraindicações e precauções especiais. Sugere ainda uma proposta de avaliação e monitorização da resposta ao tratamento.
Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent inflammatory skin disease in developed countries and is often the first manifestation of allergic diseases. It usually appears until two years of age and when persisting into adulthood tends to be more severe. Its physiopathology is complex involving genetic and environmental factors. The treatment of severe forms is based on systemic immunosuppression and cyclosporine is the only drug of this class on label in Europe. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody anti-IL-4 /IL-13 indicated in the most severe forms of disease. This clinical protocol intends to establish clinical recommendations based on international guidelines for the use of dupilumab in adult patients with moderate to severe athopic dermatitis. It also approaches contraindications and special precautions proposing a schedule to monitorize treatment response
ABSTRACT The similarity in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants was evaluated to draw inferences about the most important models for local knowledge transmission. The following questions were addressed: (1) Do related individuals possess greater similarity in knowledge of medicinal plants than unrelated individuals? (2) Do related individuals of the same generation possess greater similarity in knowledge than do related individuals of different generations? Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the medicinal plants known by the residents of a rural community in western Bahia. Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare Jaccard similarity values between related and unrelated individuals and between relatives of the same generation and relatives of different generations. Related individuals were found to have more similar knowledge than unrelated individuals, and relatives of the same generation were found to have more similar knowledge than relatives of different generations. These findings suggest that there are factors that favor cultural transmission between relatives of the same generation other than just vertical transmission.
ABSTRACT: Peanut (Arachis hypogea) is an important legume grain consumed by humans and utilized for effective nutrient cycling in a diverse cropping system. Areas that have been cultivated with perennial pasture for decades may have nutritional deficiencies and lack a sufficient population of atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient that is part of the enzyme nitrogenase contained within symbiotic Bradyrhizobium bacteria, which are responsible for fixing nitrogen in legumes. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of application of Mo at different rates and a rhizobial inoculant on peanut growth characteristics. The experiment was conducted in the 2009/2010 growing season in a no-tillage cropping system following 20-year use as pasture [Urochloa brizantha (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha)]. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. The main plots were characterized by peanut inoculation with Bradyrhizobium inoculant or without, and the split plots were characterized by different rates of molybdenum (0, 50, 100, and 200 g ha-1) applied to leaves in the form of ammonium molybdate. The nutritional status of plants, nodulation (number of nodules and nodule dry matter per plant), nitrogenase activity, and nitrogenase specific activity were evaluated at 45 and 64 days after emergence (DAE). The yield components and kernel yield were evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogenase enzyme activity at 64 DAE approximately doubled, and the number of pods per plant was greater with inoculation than without, both of which led to greater yields of pods and kernels. In long-term pasture areas, inoculation and molybdenum fertilization greater than the currently recommended rate appear to be necessary to increase pod and kernel yield per hectare of peanut when managed under no-tillage.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological response and quality of the ‘Tahiti’ acid lime coated with carboxymethylcellulose (N-CMC), pectin (N-PEC) and starch (N-ST) nanocomposites based on cellulose nanocrystals (NC). Respiratory rate, ethylene production, loss of fresh weight, total chlorophyll and fruit firmness were evaluated during 9 days of storage. At the end of storage, only fruits coated with N-CMC and N-PEC exhibited significantly lower ethylene yield (0.92 and 0.98 μg C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively) than fruits coated with CMC and PEC (1.6 and 2.02 μg C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively). On the 3rd day of storage, fruits coated with N-PEC showed a respiratory rate (12.01 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1) similar to the fruits of the control (13.52 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1), but it was significantly lower than the fruits coated with PEC (14.93 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1). Only fruits coated with N-PEC showed significantly lower fresh weight losses than the control fruits. Fruits coated with N-PEC had chlorophyll retention levels (18.95 mg g-1) higher than fruits with PEC (13.25 mg g-1). This work showed that the N-PEC nanocomposite, based on NC, was the coating that showed greater potential for preserving quality of the ‘Tahiti’ acid lime.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weight loss in women with morbid obesity subjected to bariatric surgery alters lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and the level of habitual physical activity and to investigate the relationship between these variables and changes in both body composition and anthropometrics. METHODS: Twenty-four women with morbid obesity were evaluated with regard to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, body composition, anthropometrics and the level of habitual physical activity two weeks prior to and six months after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: Regarding lung function, mean increases of 160 mL in slow vital capacity, 550 mL in expiratory reserve volume, 290 mL in forced vital capacity and 250 mL in forced expiratory volume in the first second as well as a mean reduction of 490 mL in inspiratory capacity were found. Respiratory muscle strength increased by a mean of 10 cmH2O of maximum inspiratory pressure, and a 72-meter longer distance on the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test demonstrated that functional capacity also improved. Significant changes also occurred in anthropometric variables and body composition but not in the level of physical activity detected using the Baecke questionnaire, indicating that the participants remained sedentary. Moreover, correlations were found between the percentages of lean and fat mass and both inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that changes in body composition and anthropometric variables exerted a direct influence on functional capacity and lung function in the women analyzed but exerted no influence on sedentarism, even after accentuated weight loss following bariatric surgery.
ABSTRACT The Amazon Basin is a center of diversity of Gossypium barbadense and the strategy for conservation of this genetic resource depends on the knowledge of the diversity maintained in Amazonas State. During two expeditions, in 2012 and 2014, plants were collected in ten municipalities in the state of Amazonas, in the central Brazilian Amazon region. The molecular diversity was estimated by SSR markers for 50 samples collected in 2012. The morphological diversity of 24 plants collected in 2014 was assessed ex situ and compared to that of 50 plants of the same and other cotton varieties from other Brazilian states. Most of plants evaluated in situ in Amazonas had purple petioles and veins (82%), associated to medicinal use, and kidney seeds (78%). The ex situ morphological analysies showed that G. barbadense plants from the Amazonas state: i) presented higher similarity to cotton plants from other northern Brazilian states, and ii) were grouped separately from those of other northern Brazilian states by descriptor analysis. Both the molecular (H=0.41) and morphological (H=0.38±0.02) diversity among the collected plants was considered intermediary. Our study indicates the distinctiveness of Amazon cottons, and contributes to demonstrate the discrimination power of multicategorical traits.
RESUMO A bacia Amazônica é um centro de diversidade de Gossypium barbadense e a estratégia de manutenção desse recurso genético depende do conhecimento da diversidade da espécie mantida no Estado do Amazonas. Em 2012 e 2014 plantas desta espécie foram coletadas em dez municípios na região centro-leste do Estado. A diversidade molecular por marcadores microssatélites foi mensurada para 50 amostras da coleta de 2012. A diversidade morfológica de 24 plantas coletadas em 2014 foi medida ex situ e comparada com a de 50 amostras desta e de outras variedades de algodão de outros estados do Brasil. A maioria das plantas do Amazonas apresentou folhas arroxeadas (82%), associadas a uso medicinal, e sementes unidas, do tipo rim-de-boi (78%). A análise morfológica ex situ mostrou que G. barbadense coletado no estado do Amazonas: i) tem maior similaridade com plantas da mesma espécie de outros estados da Região Norte do Brasil e ii) se agrupam entre si de forma diferenciada das plantas de outros estados. A diversidade molecular (H = 0,41) e morfológica (H = 0,38 ± 0,02) entre os acessos foi considerada intermediária. Nosso estudo indica o caráter distintivo dos algodões amazônicos, e contribui para demonstrar o poder de discriminação de variáveis multicategóricas.
ABSTRACT The increasing loss of local ecological knowledge may have negative impacts on the resilience of socio-ecological systems and may also negatively impact bioprospecting efforts, since local ecological knowledge is an important source of information for searching new drugs. Recent studies try to evaluate whether communities are experiencing loss of local ecological knowledge. However, some of them make conclusions which are erroneously based on specific analyses of a single indicator. We propose an integrative analysis of three indicators, namely: number of plants cited by young people and elders, therapeutic choices and people's connectance in terms of medicinal plant learning. The study was carried out in the community of Sucruiuzinho (Bahia, Brazil). We conducted semistructured interviews and a therapeutic recall with 24 local dwellers. We did not find evidence of local ecological knowledge loss in the studied community. Although younger people know fewer plants, they are well connected in terms of knowledge transmission. Moreover, in illness events, young people and adults have similar proportions of choice for plants when compared to allopathy. Concomitant use of the three indicators leads to a more realistic scenario of local ecological knowledge loss than the use of only one of them.
ABSTRACT In the last few years, new primary immunodeficiencies and genetic defects have been described. Recently, immunoglobulin products with improved compositions and for subcutaneous use have become available in Brazil. In order to guide physicians on the use of human immunoglobulin to treat primary immunodeficiencies, based on a narrative literature review and their professional experience, the members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Group of the Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunology prepared an updated document of the 1st Brazilian Consensus, published in 2010. The document presents new knowledge about the indications and efficacy of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies, relevant production-related aspects, mode of use (routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, doses and intervals), adverse events (major, prevention, treatment and reporting), patient monitoring, presentations available and how to have access to this therapeutic resource in Brazil.
RESUMO Nos últimos anos, novas imunodeficiências primárias e defeitos genéticos têm sido descritos. Recentemente, produtos de imunoglobulina, com aprimoramento em sua composição e para uso por via subcutânea, tornaram-se disponíveis em nosso meio. Com o objetivo de orientar o médico no uso da imunoglobulina humana para o tratamento das imunodeficiências primárias, os membros do Grupo de Assessoria em Imunodeficiências da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia produziram um documento que teve por base uma revisão narrativa da literatura e sua experiência profissional, atualizando o I Consenso Brasileiro publicado em 2010. Apresentam-se novos conhecimentos sobre indicações e eficácia do tratamento com imunoglobulina nas imunodeficiências primárias, aspectos relevantes sobre a produção, forma de utilização (vias de administração, farmacocinética, doses e intervalos), efeitos adversos (principais efeitos, prevenção, tratamento e notificação), monitorização do paciente, apresentações disponíveis e forma de obtenção deste recurso terapêutico em nosso meio.