Eicosanoids are 20-carbon bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammatory responses. In recent years, studies have shown the importance of eicosanoids in the control of physiological and pathological processes associated with several diseases, including cancer. The polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly metabolized to generate 2-series eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which is the major n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fat and in the occidental diet. The three main pathways responsible for metabolizing arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate eicosanoids are the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and P450 epoxygenase pathways. Inflammation plays a decisive role in various stages of tumor development including initiation, promotion, invasion and metastasis. This review will focus on studies that have investigated the role of prostanoids and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids in the development and progression of different tumors, highlighting the findings that may provide insights into how these eicosanoids can influence cell proliferation, cell migration and the inflammatory process. A better understanding of the complex role played by eicosanoids in both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment may provide new markers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and identify new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment.
ABSTRACT Gliomas account for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors and present invasive behavior into adjacent healthy tissue. While 4-NC had previously shown to induce apoptotic cell death in a melanoma model, for the glioma model described in this paper 4-NC is cytotoxic for the cells with the induction of the autophagic pathway. Trypan blue exclusion assay showed that 4-NC was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner for A172 and T98G cell lines. IC10 and IC50 values were at 32 µM and 41 µM for A172 and T98G respectively. Inhibition of cell proliferation was observed by total cell counts and by cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, with cell cycle arrest of A172 and T98G cell lines respectively in the G1/G0 and S phases of the cell cycle. 4-NC induced up-regulation of autophagic pathways, as shown by immunoblotting for LC3-I/II, Real-Time PCR for ATG-7 and Beclin-1 genes, and by fluorescence microscopy observation of autophagic vacuoles in cells transfected with GFP-LC3 and electron microscopy. Glioma cells concomitantly treated with 4-NC and 3-MA, an inhibitor of the autophagic process, are more sensible to cell death, suggesting that autophagy protects the cells from the action of 4-NC.