This work shows the results of a Proficiency Testing performed by a partnership between INMETRO and ANP. The performance of 49 Brazilian laboratories (using the z-score statistical test) in determining 10 quality parameters of ethanol fuel and biodiesel was evaluated. The certified reference values were provided by INMETRO, allowing a more rigorous assessment of the laboratories. For hydrous ethanol, the acidity parameter showed the lowest number of laboratories with satisfactory results (48%), while 85% of the laboratories presented satisfactory results for ethanol content. For biodiesel, the percentage of laboratories with satisfactory results ranged from 46% (kinematic viscosity) to 92% (acid number).