ABSTRACT Background/objective: There is an increasing number of older patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, the improved prognosis and life expectancy of patients, and the higher number of new infections among older individuals. The main objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics of older human immunodeficiency virus patients with those of younger patients. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were treated at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Assistência Especializada) for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the city of Pelotas, South Brazil. Sociodemographic information as well as data on human immunodeficiency virus infection and treatment were collected. All participants underwent psychiatric and neurocognitive assessments, and their adherence to antiretroviral therapy was evaluated. Results: A total of 392 patients participated in the study, with 114 patients aged 50 years and older. The characteristics showing significant differences between older and younger human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients included race/ethnicity, comorbidities, duration and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, currently undetectable viral load, and cognitive impairment. Compared to younger patients, older patients were at higher risk of exhibiting cognitive impairment [OR 2.28 (95% CI: 1.35-3.82, p = 0.002)] and of having increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy [OR 3.11 (95% CI: 1.67-5.79, p < 0.001)]. Conclusions: The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment remained high in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients despite antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, the prevalence of this type of impairment was significantly higher in patients aged ≥50 years, most likely due to aging, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and a possible synergistic effect between these factors. Despite this higher prevalence, older patients exhibited higher rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and of undetectable human immunodeficiency virus viral load.
INTRODUCTION: Countertransference, the emotional reaction of a psychotherapist toward a patient, is an important technical element of psychotherapy. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and describe the main findings of studies that evaluated countertransference in adult psychotherapy.METHODS: A search was conducted of the databases Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge to retrieve data published in any language at any time.RESULTS:Of the 1,081 studies found in the databases, 25 were selected. Most were about psychodynamic psychotherapy, and results indicated that positive countertransference, that is, feelings of closeness to the patient, are associated with positive outcomes, such as symptom improvement and good therapeutic alliance.CONCLUSIONS: Although few studies were found in the literature, countertransference seems to be an important source of knowledge about several aspects, such as treatment outcomes, attachment style, therapeutic alliance, patient symptoms and diagnoses.
INTRODUÇÃO: Contratransferência, definida como a reação emocional do psicoterapeuta em relação ao paciente, é um elemento técnico importante da psicoterapia. Esta revisão sistemática procura identificar e descrever os principais achados de estudos que avaliaram a contratransferência na psicoterapia de adultos.MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma busca sem restrição de língua ou data de publicação nas bases de dados Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO e Web of Knowledge.RESULTADOS: Dos 1.081 estudos encontrados nas bases de dados, 25 foram selecionados. A maioria trata de psicoterapia psicodinâmica e os resultados indicam que a contratransferência positiva, isto é, os sentimentos de proximidade com o paciente, está associada a resultados positivos, tais como a melhora dos sintomas e o desenvolvimento de uma boa aliança terapêutica.CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de poucos estudos terem sido encontrados na literatura, a contratransferência parece ser uma fonte importante para o conhecimento do resultado do tratamento, estilo de apego, aliança terapêutica, sintomas e diagnóstico, dentre outros aspectos.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during pregnancy in teenage mothers and to assess its association with socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history and psychosocial variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of pregnant teenagers enrolled in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. MDD was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify physical abuse within the last 12 months and during pregnancy, and social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Forty-three (4.94%) potential subjects refused to participate, resulting in 828 total participants. The prevalence of MDD was 17.8%, 9.2% reported they had been subjected to violence within the last 12 months, while 5.8% had suffered violence during pregnancy, and the mean (SD) overall social support score was 87.40 (11.75). After adjustment, we found the highest incidence of MDD in adolescents with less than 8 years of education, followed by those with previous episodes of MDD and those with lower overall social support. CONCLUSIONS: MDD is a relatively common condition in pregnant teenagers and appears to be more prevalent in young mothers who are both socioeconomically and psychosocially underprivileged.
OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) across three time points: between 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (T1), 30 to 60 days postpartum (T2), and 12 months after childbirth (T3). RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive episodes was 5.0% at T1, 4.5% at T2, and 4.3% at T3. Mixed episodes were present in 3%, 1.7%, and 0.9% of subjects, respectively, and accounted for 61.1% of the cases of depression in the antenatal period, 37.5% in postpartum, and 21.4% at 12 months. Depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes were significantly associated during pregnancy and in postpartum, but not at 12 months after childbirth. CONCLUSION: Bipolar episodes were common in men with depressive symptoms during their partner's pregnancy in the postpartum period and, to a lesser extent, 12 months after childbirth. Therefore, this population should be carefully investigated for manic and hypomanic symptoms.
OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência dos episódios depressivos e bipolares em homens no período pré e pós-natal, assim como 12 meses após o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal com amostra de pais cujas crianças nasceram entre abril de 2007 e maio de 2008 em maternidades da cidade de Pelotas-RS, no sul do Brasil. Episódios depressivos e maníacos/hipomaníacos foram mensurados com o Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview em três tempos diferentes: entre a 28ª e 34ª semanas de gestação (T1), 30 a 60 dias após o parto (T2) e 12 meses após o nascimento da criança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de episódios depressivos foi 5,0% em T1, 4,5% em T2 e 4,3% em T3. Episódios mistos estiveram presentes em 3,0, 1,7 e 0,9%, respectivamente, e somaram 61,1% de casos de depressão antenatal, 37,5% pós-natal e 21,4% aos 12 meses pós-parto. Episódio depressivo e maníaco/hipomaníaco esteve significativamente associado durante a gestação e o pós-parto. CONCLUSÃO: Episódios bipolares são comuns em homens com sintomas depressivos durante a gestação de suas companheiras e no período pós-natal. Essa população deveria ser cuidadosamente investigada para sintomas maníacos e hipomaníacos, a fim de ser adequadamente tratada.
A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to identify the prevalence of common mental disorders and verify the association with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the self-reported number of chronic diseases. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was applied in a multi-stage random sample of 1,276 adults aged 40 and older. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related variables were also obtained using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.2%. Lower schooling and social class and the 46-55-year age bracket were associated with psychiatric morbidity. Each chronic illness was independently associated with common mental disorders. However, a stronger association was found between common mental disorders and the total number of self-reported chronic conditions, with a prevalence ratio of 4.67 (95%CI: 3.19-6.83) for five or more self-reported NCDs. The current study emphasizes the importance of common mental disorders in chronically ill patients, particularly in those with more total chronic conditions.
Estudo transversal de base populacional foi conduzido tendo como objetivos avaliar a prevalência dos transtornos mentais comuns e verificar sua associação com determinadas enfermidades crônicas e com o número de doenças crônicas relatadas pelo indivíduo. Para a avaliação de transtornos mentais comuns, o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) foi aplicado em 1.276 adultos com 40 anos ou mais. Variáveis sócio-demográficas, comportamentais e relacionadas à saúde foram obtidas por meio de um questionário estruturado. Os transtornos mentais comuns apresentaram uma prevalência de 30,2%, estando associados à baixa escolaridade e classe social, e à faixa etária de 46-65 anos. Todas as doenças crônicas pesquisadas mostraram-se associadas aos transtornos mentais comuns. Entretanto, o número de enfermidades apresentadas pelo indivíduo teve maior importância do que cada uma delas individualmente, com uma razão de prevalência de 4,67 e intervalo de 95% de confiança: 3,19-6,83 para cinco ou mais doenças relatadas. O presente estudo realça a importância de se atentar para os transtornos mentais em indivíduos com enfermidades crônicas, principalmente naqueles que se apresentam com um grande número de doenças.