Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether probiotics multi-strain formula affects the development of apical periodontitis (AP) induced in rats. Methodology 16 Wistar rats were divided in two groups (n=8): rats with AP fed with regular diet (Control-C (CG)); rats with AP, fed with regular diet and supplemented with multi-strain formula (one billion colony-forming units (CFU)): GNC Probiotic Complex (PCG) ( Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivaris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis and Streptococcus thermofilus ). AP was induced in the upper and lower first molars by dental pulp exposure to the oral environment. PCG was administered orally through gavage for 30 days during the AP development. After this period the animals were euthanized and the mandibles were removed and processed for histologic analysis, and immunochemical assays for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1β, RANKL, OPG, and TRAP. The Mann–Whitney U test and Student’s t test were performed (P<.05). Results The CG showed more intense inflammatory infiltrate than the PCG group (P<.05). IL-1β, IL 6 and RANKL decreased in the PCG group compared with CG (P<.05). The IL-10 level increased in the PCG group (P<.05). The OPG level was similar in both groups (P>.05). The number of mature osteoclasts (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells) was lower in PCG group when compared to the CG (P<.05). Conclusion Probiotic Complex modulates inflammation and bone resorption in apical periodontitis.
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the tissue response and the biomineralization ability of CER prepared with epoxy resin or water compared to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods: Polyethylene tubes containing materials or empty tubes for control were inserted into the subcutaneous tissues of 30 rats. After 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, the rats were killed and the tubes were removed for analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining, von Kossa staining, and under polarized light. Inflammation was graded through a score system; the thickness of the fibrous capsule was classified as thin or thick; the biomineralization ability was recorded as present or absent. The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results: Histologic analysis performed after 7 and 15 days for CER prepared with epoxy resin or water and for MTA showed moderate inflammation and a thick fibrous capsule (p>0.05). After 30, 60, and 90 days, mild inflammation, and a thin fibrous capsule were observed in all groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: All materials had structures positive for von Kossa and birefringent to polarized light. CER epoxy resin showed biocompatibility and biomineralization similar to CER water and MTA.
Abstract This study evaluated the biocompatibility, biomineralization, and collagen fiber maturation induced by Resorbable Tissue Replacement (RTR®; β-tricalcium phosphate [TCP]), Bioglass (BIOG; bioactive glass), and DM Bone® (DMB; hydroxyapatite and β-TCP) in vivo. Sixty-four polyethylene tubes with or without (control group; CG) materials (n=8/group/period) were randomly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 16 male Wistar rats (four per rat), weighting 250 to 280 g. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 days (n=8), and the specimens were removed for analysis of inflammation using hematoxylin-eosin; biomineralization assay using von Kossa (VK) staining and polarized light (PL); and collagen fiber maturation using picrosirius red (PSR). Nonparametric data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests, and parametric data by one-way ANOVA test (p<0.05). At 7 days, all groups induced moderate inflammation (p>0.05). At 30 days, there was mild inflammation in the BIOG and CG, and moderate inflammation in the RTR and DMB groups, with a significant difference between the CG and RTR (p<0.05). The fibrous capsule was thick at 7 days and predominantly thin at 30 days in all groups. All materials exhibited structures that stained positively for VK and PL. Immature collagen fibers were predominant at 7 and 30 days in all groups (p>0.05), although DMB exhibited more mature fibers than BIOG at 30 days (p<0.05). RTR, BIOG, and DMB were biocompatible, inducing inflammation that reduced over time and biomineralization in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. DMB exhibited more mature collagen fibers than BIOG over a longer period.
Resumo Este estudo avaliou a biocompatibilidade, biomineralização e maturação das fibras de colágeno induzidas por Resorbable Tissue Replacement (RTR®; fosfato β-tricálcico [TCP]), Bioglass (BIOG; vidro bioativo) e DM Bone® (DMB; hidroxiapatita e β-TCP) in vivo. Sessenta e quatro tubos de polietileno com ou sem (grupo controle; GC) os materiais (n=8/grupo/período) foram implantados aleatoriamente em tecido subcutâneo de 16 ratos machos Wistar (quatro por rato), pesando entre 250 a 280g. Os ratos foram mortos após 7 e 30 dias (n=8), e as amostras foram removidas para análise da inflamação utilizando hematoxilina-eosina; avaliação da biomineralização utilizando coloração de von Kossa (VK) e luz polarizada (LP); e maturação das fibras colágenas, utilizando picrosirius red (PSR). Os dados não-paramétricos foram analisados pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn, e os paramétricos pelo teste de one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Aos 7 dias, todos os grupos induziram inflamação moderada (p>0,05). Aos 30 dias, houve inflamação leve nos grupos BIOG e GC, e inflamação moderada nos grupos RTR e DMB, com diferença significativa entre os GC e RTR (p<0,05). A cápsula fibrosa foi espessa aos 7 dias, e predominantemente fina aos 30 dias em todos os grupos. Todos os materiais exibiram estruturas positivas para VK e LP. Fibras colágenas imaturas foram predominantes aos 7 e 30 dias em todos os grupos (p>0,05), embora o DMB exibiu fibras mais maduras do que o BIOG aos 30 dias (p<0,05). RTR, BIOG e DMB foram biocompatíveis, induzindo inflamação que reduziu com o tempo, e biomineralização no tecido subcutâneo de ratos. O DMB exibiu mais fibras colágenas maduras do que o BIOG em período mais longo.
Abstract Objectives This study evaluated if the use of a bioactive glass-ceramic-based gel, named Biosilicate (BS), before, after or mixed with bleaching gel, could influence the inflammation of the dental pulp tissue of rats’ molars undergoing dental bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methodology The upper molars of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) were divided into Ble: bleached (35% H2O2, 30-min); Ble-BS: bleached and followed by BS-based gel application (20 min); BS-Ble: BS-based gel application and then bleaching; BS/7d-Ble: BS-based gel applications for 7 days and then bleaching; Ble+BS: blend of H2O2 with BS-based gel (1:1, 30-min); and control: placebo gel. After 2 and 30 days (n=10), the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests were performed (P<0.05). Results At 2 days, the Ble and Ble-BS groups had significant alterations in the pulp tissue, with an area of necrosis. The groups with the application of BS-based gel before H2O2 had moderate inflammation and partial disorganization in the occlusal third of the coronary pulp and were significantly different from the Ble in the middle and cervical thirds (P<0.05). The most favorable results were observed in the Ble+BS, which was similar to the control in all thirds of the coronary pulp (P>0.05). At 30 days, the pulp tissue was organized and the bleached groups presented tertiary dentin deposition. The Ble group had the highest deposition of tertiary dentin, followed by the Ble-BS, and both were different from control (P<0.05). Conclusion A single BS-based gel application beforehand or BS-based gel blended with a bleaching gel minimize the pulp damage induced by dental bleaching.
Abstract New mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) formulations are constantly introduced in the market, usually in a powder-and-liquid form. Bioceramic (Bio-C) Repair is a ready-for-use material suggested as substitute for MTA, but its properties need to be studied. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and biomineralization of Bio-C Repair compared to MTA Repair High-Plasticity (MTA-HP) and white MTA-Angelus (MTA-Ang). L929 fibroblasts were exposed to material-extracted (undiluted, ½ and ¼ dilutions; 6, 24 and 48h). Polyethylene tubes with material or empty (control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. After 7 and 30 days (n=8), the specimens were removed for analysis (hematoxylin-eosin, von Kossa and polarized light). Cytotoxicity data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA, and biocompatibility data by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). The cells exposed to the materials had greater viability at most of the periods compared with control (p<0.05). The undiluted and ½ dilutions of MTA-HP extract showed higher cytocompatibility than Bio-C Repair at 6 h and with the ¼ dilution at 24 h (p<0.05); the white MTA-Ang showed higher cytocompatibility than Bio-C Repair at most of periods (p<0.05). The undiluted white MTA-Ang extract had higher cytocompatibility at 6 and 24h than MTA-HP, and with ½ dilution at 24h (p<0.05). The materials’ cytocompatibility was similar at 48h for most dilutions (p>0.05). At 7 and 30 days, the groups had moderate and mild inflammation, respectively (p>0.05). All materials showed positive structures for von Kossa and polarized light. In conclusion, Bio-C Repair had similar cytocompatibility to MTA-based materials is biocompatible and induces biomineralization.
Resumo Novas formulações de agregado de trióxido mineral (MTA) são constantemente introduzidas no mercado, geralmente em forma de pó e líquido. O Biocerâmico (Bio-C) Reparador (Repair) é um material pronto para uso sugerido como substituto do MTA, mas suas propriedades precisam ser estudadas. Este estudo avaliou a citotoxicidade, biocompatibilidade e biomineralização do Bio-C Repair comparado ao MTA-High Plasticity (MTA-HP) e MTA branco da Angelus (MTA-Ang). Fibroblastos L929 foram expostos a extratos dos materiais (não diluído, ½ e ¼ diluições; 6, 24 e 48 h). Tubos de polietileno contendo os materiais ou vazios (controle) foram implantados no tecido subcutâneo de ratos. Após 7 e 30 dias (n=8), os espécimes foram removidos para análises (hematoxilina-eosina, von Kossa e luz polarizada). Os dados da citotoxicidade foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de two-way ANOVA, e os dados da biocompatibilidade pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (p<0,05). As células expostas aos materiais apresentaram maior viabilidade celular na maior parte dos períodos, comparados com o controle (p<0,05). O extrato não diluído e ½ diluição do MTA-HP apresentaram maior citocompatibilidade do que Bio-C Repair às 6h, e com ¼ diluição às 24h (p<0,05); o MTA-Ang branco apresentou maior citocompatibilidade do que o Bio-C Repair na maior parte dos períodos (p<0,05). O extrato não diluído do MTA-Ang branco apresentou maior citocompatibilidade às 6 e 24 h comparado ao MTA-HP, e com ½ diluição às 24h (p<0,05). A citocompatibilidade dos materiais foi semelhante às 48 h para a maior parte das diluições (p>0,05). Aos 7 e 30 dias, os grupos apresentaram inflamação moderada e leve, respectivamente (p>0,05). Todos os materiais mostraram estruturas positivas para von Kossa e luz polarizada. Em conclusão, o Bio-C Repair teve citocompatibilidade semelhante aos materiais à base de MTA, é biocompatível e induz à biomineralização.
Abstract: This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer (i.e., Sealer Plus BC) in comparison with those of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. L929 fibroblasts were cultured and Alamar Blue was used to evaluate cell viability of diluted extracts (1:50, 1:100, and 1:200) from each sealer at 24 h. Polyethylene tubes that were filled with material or empty (as a control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 d (n = 8), and the tubes were removed for histological analysis. Parametric data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, and nonparametric data was analyzed via the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Dunn test (p < 0.05). A reduction in cell viability was observed in the extracts that were more diluted for Sealer Plus BC when compared to that of Control and AH Plus (p < 0.05). However, the 1:50 dilution of the Sealer Plus BC was similar to that of the Control (p > 0.05). Conversely, more diluted extracts of MTA Fillapex (1:200) and AH Plus (1:100 and 1:200) were similar to the Control (p > 0.05). Histological analysis performed at 7 d did not indicate any significant difference between tissue response for all materials, and the fibrous capsule was thick (p > 0.05). At 30 d, Sealer Plus BC was similar to the Control (p > 0.05) and MTA Fillapex and AH Plus exhibited greater inflammation than the Control (p < 0.05). The fibrous capsule was thin for the Control and for most specimens of Sealer Plus BC and AH Plus. Thus, Sealer Plus BC is biocompatible when compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus, and it is less cytotoxic when less-diluted extracts are used.
Abstract: This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.
Abstract This study evaluated the effect of hypertension on tissue response and biomineralization capacity of white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), High-plasticity MTA (MTA HP), and Biodentine® (BDT) in rats. Polyethylene tubes filled with MTA, MTA HP, BDT, and the control group (empty tubes) were placed into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of 32 male rats (16 normotensive (NT) and 16 hypertensive rats - 8 per group). After 7 and 30 days, the polyethylene tubes surrounded by connective tissue were removed, fixed, and embedded in histological resin. The mean number of inflammatory cells was estimated in HE-stained sections, biomineralization was quantified as area (µm2) by Kossa (VK) staining, and examination by polarized light (LP) microscopy was performed. The differences amongst the groups were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney or Student’s t test, according to Shapiro-Wilk test of normality (p < 0.05). The inflammatory responses to all materials were greater in hypertensive rats than in NT rats (p < 0.05). Positive VK staining in MTA and BDT were more pronounced in NT rats at 7 and 30 days (p < 0.05). Birefringent structures in LP for MTA, MTA HP, and BDT were more pronounced in NT rats at 7 days (p<0.05). In rats, hypertension was able to increase inflammatory infiltrate and decrease biomineralization of the tested materials.
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the cyclic fatigue resistance of Genius and EdgeFile X1 reciprocating instruments compared with WaveOne Gold Primary. Twenty Genius (Ultradent) 25.04, 20 Genius 30.04, 20 EdgeFile X1 (EdgeEndo) and 20 WaveOne Gold Primary (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments were included in this study and tested in a static cyclic fatigue testing device, which has an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated in reciprocation mode until fracture occurred. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and time to fracture (TF) was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer. The mean and standard deviations of NCF and TF were calculated for each reciprocating system and the data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and to Dunn's test (p < .05) using SigmaPlot software (Systat software, CA, USA). The fractured surfaces of five instruments from each brand were randomly examined and microphotographed by a low-vacuum environmental scanning electron microscopy – SEM (Tabletop Microscope TM3030, Hitachi, Japan) to confirm the cyclic fatigue fracture. EdgeFile exhibited the highest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by both Genius files (p < .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, EdgeFile X1 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than did Genius and WaveOne Gold Primary instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of both Genius files was higher than that of WaveOne Gold Primary.
Abstract Bleaching gel containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) cause damages in pulp tissue. This study investigated the action of a topical anti-inflammatory, the Otosporin®, in rats’ bleached teeth with the null hypothesis of which the Otosporin® is no able to minimize the pulp inflammation that bleaching gel generates. The rat’s molars were divided into groups: BLE: bleached (35% H2O2 concentration /single application of 30 min); BLE-O: bleached followed by Otosporin® (10 min); and control: placebo gel. In the second day after dental bleaching, the rats were killed, and the jaws were processed for hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry analysis for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17. The data collected were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests with at a 5% level of significance (p<0.05). The BLE group had moderate to strong inflammation in the occlusal third of the coronary pulp, with necrotic areas; and BLE-O, mild inflammation (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the occlusal and middle thirds of the coronary pulp between the BLE with BLE-O and control groups (p<0.05). There was no difference in the cervical third (p>0.05). The BLE group had a high immunoexpression of TNF-α than BLE-O and control groups (p<0.05), with moderate and mild immunoexpression, respectively. Regarding IL-6 and IL-17, the BLE group had higher immunoexpression than control (p<0.05); the BLE-O was similar to the control (p>0.05). The topical anti-inflammatory Otosporin® can reduce pulp inflammation after dental bleaching in the rat teeth.
Resumo O gel clareador à base de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) causa danos ao tecido pulpar. Este estudo investigou a ação de um anti-inflamatório tópico, o Otosporin®, nos dentes de ratos clareados com a hipótese nula de que o Otosporin® não é capaz de minimizar a inflamação da polpa gerada pelo gel clareador. Os molares dos ratos foram divididos em grupos: ClA: clareado (H2O2 a 35% / aplicação única de 30 min); CLA-O: clareado seguido do Otosporin® (10 min); e controle: gel placebo. No segundo dia após a clareação dentária, os ratos foram mortos e suas maxilas foram processadas para análise de hematoxilina-eosina e imunohistoquímica para o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-a), interleucina (IL)-6 e IL-17. Os dados coletados foram submetidos aos testes estatísticos de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn com um nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05). O grupo CLA apresentou inflamação moderada à severa no terço oclusal da polpa coronária, com áreas necróticas; e CLA-O, inflamação leve (p<0,05). Houve diferença significativa nos terços oclusal e médio da polpa coronária entre o grupo CLA com os grupos CLA-O e controle (p<0,05). Não houve diferença no terço cervical (p>0,05). O grupo CLA apresentou maior imunoexpressão para TNF-a comparado aos grupos CLA-O e controle (p<0,05), com imunoexpressão moderada e leve, respectivamente. Em relação a IL-6 e IL-17, o grupo CLA apresentou maior imunoexpressão comparado ao controle (p<0,05); o CLA-O foi semelhante ao controle (p>0,05). O anti-inflamatório tópico Otosporin® pode reduzir a inflamação pulpar após clareação em dentes de ratos.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the prophylactic and therapeutic supplementation with omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFAs) on the lipid profile and periapical bone resorption in rats with apical periodontitis. Forty male rats were divided into groups: control rats (C), rats treated with w-3 PUFAs (C+O), rats with pulp exposure-induced apical periodontitis (AP), and rats with AP treated with w-3 PUFAs (AP+O). The administration of w-3 PUFAs was carried out orally once a day for 15 days before pulp exposure and, subsequently, for an additional 30 days after pulp exposure. AP was induced by exposing pulpal tissues to the oral environment. The samples were collected after 30 days. Triglycerides and cholesterol levels were enzymatically measured using the Trinder method. The jaws were collected and submitted for histological analysis. Two-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis, and the significance was set at p<0.05. The triglyceride levels of the AP group were significantly higher than those of the C, C+O and AP+O groups (p<0.05). However, the difference in the cholesterol levels among the groups was not significant (p>0.05). Rats with AP showed larger areas of bone resorption as well as higher inflammatory intensity compared with rats with AP supplemented with w-3 PUFAs. It may be concluded that the presence of multiple AP foci increased the triglyceride levels. In addition, omega 3 supplementation might reduce these levels in rats with AP, as well as the bone resorption areas of periapical tissues.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da suplementação profilática e terapêutica com os ácidos graxos ômega-3 no perfil lipídico e na reabsorção óssea, em ratos com periodontite apical. Quarenta ratos machos foram divididos em grupos: ratos controle (C), ratos tratados com ácidos graxos ômega-3 (C+O), ratos com periodontite apical induzida por meio de exposição pulpar (PA), ratos com PA tratados com ácidos graxos ômega-3 (PA+O). A administração do ômega-3 foi realizada oralmente, uma vez ao dia durante 15 antes da exposição pulpar e, subsequentemente, por mais 30 dias depois da exposição pulpar. A PA foi induzida por meio da exposição do tecido pulpar ao ambiente oral. Após 30 dias, os ratos foram mortos e os níveis de triglicérides e colesterol foram mensurados pelo método enzimático de Trinder. As mandíbulas foram coletadas e submetidas à análise histológica. Análise de variância de dois fatores e teste de Kruskal-Wallis foram utilizados para análise estatística, e o nível de significância foi de p < 0,05. Os níveis de triglicérides do grupo PA foram significativamente maiores que dos grupos C, C+O e PA+O (p<0,05). Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de colesterol entre os grupos (p>0,05). Ratos com PA apresentaram maior área de reabsorção óssea bem como maior intensidade no infiltrado inflamatório comparados aos ratos com PA suplementados com ômega-3. Pode-se concluir que a presença de múltiplos focos de PA aumentou os níveis de triglicérides. Além disso, a suplementação com ômega-3 pode reduzir estes níveis em ratos com PA, bem como a área de reabsorção óssea dos tecidos periapicais.
Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate dental sensitivity using visual analogue scale, a Computerized Visual Analogue Scale (CoVAS) and a neurosensory analyzer (TSA II) during at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide, with and without potassium oxalate. Materials and Methods Power Bleaching 10% containing potassium oxalate was used on one maxillary hemi-arch of the 25 volunteers, and Opalescence 10% was used on the opposite hemi-arch. Bleaching agents were used daily for 3 weeks. Analysis was performed before treatment, 24 hours later, 7, 14, and 21 days after the start of the treatment, and 7 days after its conclusion. The spontaneous tooth sensitivity was evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the sensitivity caused by a continuous 0°C stimulus was analyzed using CoVAS. The cold sensation threshold was also analyzed using the TSA II. The temperatures obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results The data obtained with the other methods were also analyzed. 24 hours, 7 and 14 days before the beginning of the treatment, over 20% of the teeth presented spontaneous sensitivity, the normal condition was restored after the end of the treatment. Regarding the cold sensation temperatures, both products sensitized the teeth (p<0.05) and no differences were detected between the products in each period (p>0.05). In addition, when they were compared using CoVAS, Power Bleaching caused the highest levels of sensitivity in all study periods, with the exception of the 14th day of treatment. Conclusion We concluded that the bleaching treatment sensitized the teeth and the product with potassium oxalate was not able to modulate tooth sensitivity.
Abstract: Based on aroeira's (Myracrodruon urundeuva) antimicrobial activity and a future trend to compose intracanal medication, the aim of this study was to assess in vivo inflamatory tissue response to the extracts by edemogenic and histological analysis containing inactivated facultative and anaerobic microorganisms. For edema quantification, eighteen animals were divided into three groups (n = 3, periods: 3 and 6 hours) and 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein under general anesthesia. After 30 min the animals received a subcutaneous injection in the dorsal region of aqueous or ethanolic extract of aroeira or saline (control) containing inactivated bacteria. Samples were collected, immersed in formamide for 72h, and evaluated by spectrophotometry (630 m). For histological analysis, polyethylene tubes with the extracts were implanted in the dorsal of 30 male rats. Analysis of the fibrous capsule and inflammatory infiltrate were performed after 7 and 30 days. The aqueous extract group induced less edema in both postoperative periods compared to the other groups, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Tissue repair was significantly better after 30 days than after 7 days (p < 0.01). The aqueous solution showed less inflammatory response than the ethanolic solution (p < 0.05), with tendency for better results than control after 7 days. After 30 days, the response to both extracts was similar to control. The aqueous and ethanolic aroeira extracts containing inactivated microorganisms showed a trend for better results than saline, even when associated with microorganisms, and facilitated the tissue repair process.
Abstract Objective This study verified the occurrence of dental sensitivity in patients submitted to a 35% hydrogen peroxide based product (Whiteness HP Maxx 35% – FGM), skin cold sensation threshold (SCST) and its influence on dental sensitivity. Material and Methods Sixty volunteers were divided into 4 groups (n = 15), according to SCST (low: GI and GIII, and high: GII and IV) and bleaching treatment (hydrogen peroxide: GI and GII, and placebo: GIII and GIV). SCST was determined in the inner forearm for 6 different times using a neurosensory analyzer, the TSA II (Medoc Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Northern District, Israel). Dental sensitivity measurements were performed 10 different times using a thermal stimulus and an intraoral device attached to TSA II, positioned in the buccal surface of the upper right central incisor. Spontaneous dental sensitivity was also determined using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were submitted to Student's t-test and Pearson's Correlation Test (α=0.05). SCST remained the same during bleaching treatment. Results Distinct responses of dental sensitivity were found in patients with low and high SCST during the first and third bleaching session (p≤0.05). The teeth submitted to the bleaching treatment became more sensitive to cold than those treated with placebo. Moreover, data obtained with TSA and VAS presented moderate correlation. Conclusions Bleaching treatment increased dental sensitivity and skin cold sensation threshold might represent a determining factor in this occurrence, since low and high SCST patients had different responses to the thermal stimulus in the teeth.