Abstract: Retronychia is a recently described disorder caused by ingrowth of the proximal nail plate into the proximal nail fold. It is suspected when there is persistent paronychia, particularly in the setting of trauma. This disease is probably underdiagnosed due to limited knowledge among dermatologists and the presence of incomplete clinical forms. Nail plate avulsion is the diagnostic and curative procedure of choice, despite reports of relapse.
Abstract: Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, inherited in an X-linked manner. It is characterized by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, leading to a buildup of glycosphingolipids in the cells. Angiokeratoma is one of the cutaneous manifestations of this condition, and it helps making the diagnosis. The typical site involves the genital area in men and lumbosacral, buttocks and trunk region in both sexes. We report a case of genital angiokeratoma in a woman with Fabry disease. The diagnosis is through molecular analysis and, when made early, starting treatment reduces the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Thus, the dermatologist has an important role in the identification of angiokeratoma as a cutaneous marker, and the knowledge of its different presentations is essential for the early diagnosis and management of Fabry disease.
Abstract: Acquired fibrokeratoma is a rare benign skin tumor that usually manifests as a slow-growing solitary nodular lesion of the digits. We report a case of plantar acquired fibrokeratoma evidencing its atypical size and topography, in addition to the treatment with simple surgical excision followed by healing by second intention. Nondigital fibrokeratomas may occur in 18% of cases and rarely affect the palmoplantar region. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and show ≥ 3cm in size at the time of diagnosis due to delayed diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, which is usually curative. In general, primary closure is chosen; however healing by second intention becomes an option in regions of difficult approach.
Abstract: Onychomycosis is the most prevalent onychopathy and it requires a correct early diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic gold standard is the association of direct mycological test with culture; however, it shows variable sensitivity. The histopathological examination of the distal nail plate, called clipping, has shown to be an adjuvant in diagnosing onychomycosis. This is an easy-to-perform, relatively cheap examination that is little dependent of the examiner, rapidly provides results, has high sensitivity, and for patients it is painless and harmless.
Abstract: Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.
Abstract: Mycological examination is still the cornerstone for the diagnosis of onychomycosis for many dermatologists, but sampling technique interferes on its sensitivity and specificity. Nail abrasion may be used to reach the most proximal part of the lesion and can be easily accomplished with an electric abrasor. We suggest nail plate dermoscopy to identify the best location for localized abrasion to obtain adequate samples for mycological examination.
Abstract The Iso-Kikuchi Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nail dysplasia involving the index fingers, including micronychia, polyonychia, anonychia, irregular lunula, malalignment and hemionychogryphosis. On the antero-posterior image, radiologic examination reveals a narrowing of the distal phalanx. The lateral image shows a Y-shaped bifurcation of the distal phalanx. We report a case of a patient with typical clinical and radiologic signs of Iso-Kikuchi Syndrome.
A sixty-one year old white female was referred to the Dermatology Department to treat an ingrown nail in the inner corner of the left hallux. Examination of the entire nail unit showed the presence of xanthonychia in the outer corner besides thickening and increase in the transverse curvature of the nail plate. Dermoscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance of the free edge of the nail plate detected characteristic signs of onychomatricoma, a diagnosis that was later confirmed by anatomopathological exam.
BACKGROUND: Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the outermost layers of the skin. Dermatophytic filamentous fungi and yeasts are the major causative agents of these mycoses. Dermatophytosis is one of the clinical conditions caused by fungal infections most commonly found in dermatological practice. Thus, knowledge of the ecology of dermatophytes provides a better understanding of the natural history of dermatophytosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate epidemiological and mycological features of superficial mycoses diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 in the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Medical Mycology at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo. Mycological examinations of 9042 patients with clinical suspicion of superficial mycoses performed between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 9042 direct microscopic examinations, 2626 (29%) were positive for dermatophytes, 205 (2.3%) were positive for Malassezia, 191 (2.1%) were positive for other types of yeast, 48 (0.5%) were positive for bacteria, and 5972 (66%) were negative. Mean age of patients was 48 years, 6920 (77%) patients were female and 2112 (23%) were male. CONCLUSION: The biota consisted of six dermatophyte species: T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum, T. tonsurans, E. floccosum, and M. canis. The most common site of involvement was the nail and foot in adults and scalp in children, with a female predominance. Both Candida and Malassezia were more prevalent in adult women, the former most commonly affecting the interdigital region and nails and the latter the chest and neck.
An uncommon skin manifestation of Dermatitis Herpetiformis is palmar and plantar purpura. Dermoscopic examination is useful for any skin condition since it allows recognition of structures that are not discernible to the naked eye. A 22 year-old Caucasian man was admitted with excoriated lesions and pruritus. Petechial lesions could be seen on volar aspect of the digits on the hands and feet. Dermoscopy examination revealed erythematous and violaceous dots and erythematous and brown dots.
Púrpura palmar e plantar é uma manifestação cutânea incomum da Dermatite Herpetiforme. A dermatoscopia é útil para o exame dermatológico por permitir o reconhecimento de estruturas que ao olho nu não são perceptíveis. Doente caucasiano masculino de 22 anos que queixava-se de lesões escoriadas e prurido. Observouse na face volar dos dedos dos pés e das mãos lesões petequiais. O exame dermatoscópico revelou pontos eritematosos e violáceos, além de pontos eritematosos e marrons.
Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus is a variant of verrucous epidermal nevus, characterized by recurrent inflammatory phenomena. Despite well-established clinical manifestations, the differential diagnosis between inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus and linear psoriasis remains difficult. Clinical history, physical examination and histopathology analysis may not be sufficient to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl in which the involucrin immunostaining was helpful in the diagnosis of inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Our findings confirm that involucrin immunohistochemistry is a useful tool in such cases.
O nevo epidérmico verrucoso inflamatório linear é uma variante do nevo epidérmico verrucoso caracterizada por fenômenos inflamatórios recorrentes. A despeito das manifestações clínicas bem estabelecidas o diagnóstico diferencial entre nevo epidérmico verrucoso inflamatório linear e psoríase linear permanece difícil. A história clínica, o exame físico e análise histopatológica podem não ser suficientes para a confirmação diagnóstica. Nós relatamos o caso de uma menina de 4 anos de idade no qual o uso da involucrina foi útil para o diagnóstico do nevo epidérmico verrucoso inflamatório linear . Nossos achados corroboram a imunohistoquímica com a involucrina como uma ferramenta importante nestes casos.
This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010) there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation.
Este consenso, com foco em melanoníquia e dermatoscopia da lâmina ungueal, se destina a orientar os médicos que trabalham com melanoníquia e auxiliar no manejo destes pacientes. O grupo internacional de estudos sobre melanoníquia foi fundada em 2007 e tem agora 30 membros, incluindo dermatologistas e dermatopatologistas com conhecimento especializado em unhas. A necessidade de definições comuns de dermatoscopia da lâmina ungueal foi abordada durante a segunda reunião deste grupo, realizada em fevereiro de 2008. Antes desta reunião e até a presente, não existem orientações com base em evidências sobre a utilização de dermatoscopia da placa ungueal.
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a type of fungal infection that accounts for over 50% of all onycopathies. Some authors consider superficial mycosis the most difficult to be treated. Very few studies have been carried out in order to assess the epidemiology of onychomycosis in Brazil.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological profile of onychomycosis in Brazilian dermatology offices and to assess the etiology of the disease, how often mycosis exams are requested, and the treatment adopted.METHODS: A descriptive, observational study was carried out between May and July, 2010. Thirty-eight dermatologists from different Brazilian regions participated in the study, and 7,852 patients with any skin diseases who had all of their nails examined were included in the study.RESULTS: Of the 7,852 patients, 28.3% were clinically diagnosed as having onychomycosis. Women over 45 years old who practiced exercises or with a personal history of the disease showed greater likelihood of having onychomycosis. The disease was most seen in the feet, and the majority of cases involved the hallux. On the hands, the index finger was the most affected. Mycosis exams were not requested for all clinically suspected cases. When exams were done, results showed that the most common fungus was Trichophyton rubrum. The most common clinical lesion was distal-lateral. The most prescribed topical treatments were amorolfine and ciclopirox olamine, while systemic treatments included fluconazole and terbinafine.CONCLUSION: This study was important to describe the epidemiological behavior of onychomycosis in Brazilian dermatology offices and to determine important risk factors, such as gender, age, practice of exercises, personal history of the disease, and comorbidities.
BACKGROUND: Fundamentos: As onicomicoses são infecções fúngicas que representam mais de 50% de todas onicopatias e são consideradas por alguns autores a micose superficial de mais difícil tratamento. Poucos estudos foram feitos para investigar a epidemiologia da onicomicose no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Descrever perfil epidemiológico da onicomicose nos consultórios brasileiros de dermatologia. Também observar a etiologia, a freqüência da solicitação do exame micológico e a terapia empregada. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e observacional no período de Maio a Julho de 2010. Participaram 38 dermatologistas de diferentes regiões do Brasil e foram incluídos 7852 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 7852 pacientes, 28.3% apresentaram diagnóstico de onicomicose. Mulheres, maiores de 45 anos, praticantes de esportes, ou com histórico pessoal da doença, apresentaram chance maior de adquirir onicomicose. A doença foi mais frequente nos pés, sendo o hálux, o dedo mais acometido. Nas mãos, o primeiro dedo foi o mais atingido. Exame micológico não foi solicitado para todos os casos. Quando realizado, o fungo mais freqüente foi o Trichophyton rubrum. A lesão clinica mais comum foi a distal-lateral. Os tratamentos tópicos mais prescritos foram amorolfina e ciclopirox olamina, enquanto os sistêmicos foram o fluconazol e a terbinafina. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo foi de fundamental importância para descrever o comportamento epidemiológico da onicomicose nos consultórios dermatológicos brasileiros e determinar fatores de risco, como gênero, idade, prática de esportes, antecedente pessoal de onicomicose e comorbidades. Esperamos contribuir na melhora da abordagem terapêutica e prevenção desta doença.
The glomus tumor is an uncommon benign neoplasm of glomus cells. In the majority of the cases it is presented as a solitary painful papule in the subungual region. We report a rare case of a patient with two individual synchronous glomus tumors under the nail bed of the same finger.
O tumor glômico é uma neoplasia benigna de células glômicas. Na maioria dos casos se apresenta como uma pápula solitária dolorosa na região subungueal. Relatamos o caso raro de um paciente com dois tumores glômicos sincrônicos sob o leito ungueal do mesmo dedo.