ABSTRACT We previously revealed the involvement of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion induced by cyclic compressive force (CCF) in MLO-Y4 cells. In this study, we investigated the contributions of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways to IL-6 secretion by stimulating MLO-Y4 cells with CCF. At 80% confluence, different magnitudes (1000μstrain, 2000 μstrain and 4000 μstrain), frequencies (0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 2.0 Hz) and durations (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h) of CCF were loaded onto cells using a four-point bending system. Flow Cytometry (FCM) analysis was used to analyze cell mortality rates after CCF loading. p38 and p65 phosphorylation as well as IκBα degradation in MLO-Y4 cells were detected by Western blotting (WB). Changes in IL-6 secretion after inhibitor treatment were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Cellular viability was over 90 percent after CCF. p38 and p65 phosphorylation increased under all conditions, whereas IκBα protein levels decreased. However, phosphorylation and degradation were not completely dependent on the loading magnitude, frequency or duration. Furthermore, p38 inhibition using the specific inhibitor SB203580 reduced both p38 phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion. Similarly, NF-κB inhibition using BAY 11-7082 decreased p65 phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion but increased the concentration of IκBα. These findings reveal significant roles for the p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways in IL-6 secretion induced by CCF in MLO-Y4 cells.
The absolute fault displacement in co-seismic deformation is derived assuming that location, depth, faulting mechanism and magnitude of the earthquake are known. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) is used as an example to determine the distribution of seismic intensities using absolute displacement and a crustal model. We fnd that an early prediction of the distribution of seismic intensities after a large earthquake may be performed from the estimated absolute co-seismic displacements using known information from distant stations. Early information on intensities may be vital in disaster evaluation and emergency response after a disastrous event, such as the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.
Para un sismo, el desplazamiento cosísmico absoluto de la falla puede calcularse con base de la localización, la profundidad focal, el mecanismo focal y la magnitud. Así, en base a informaciones provenientes de estaciones remotas, es posible estimar el desplazamiento cosísmico e inferir la correspondiente distribución de intensidades sísmicas. Se presenta el ejemplo del sismo de Wenchuan de 2008, M8.0, y se determina exitosamente la distribución de intensidades utilizando los desplazamientos cosísmicos más un modelo de velocidades. Una evaluación preliminar de intensidades es indispensable para efectos de un diagnóstico temprano del desastre y de una respuesta emergente efectiva en caso de un sismo destructor como el de 2008 en Wenchuan, China.