This study aimed to compare the ability of narrow-band imaging to detect early and invasive lung cancer with that of conventional pathological analysis and white-light bronchoscopy. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Sinomed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for relevant studies. Meta-disc software was used to perform data analysis, meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis, and heterogeneity testing, and STATA software was used to determine if publication bias was present, as well as to calculate the relative risks for the sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging vs those of white-light bronchoscopy for the detection of early and invasive lung cancer. A random-effects model was used to assess the diagnostic efficacy of the above modalities in cases in which a high degree of between-study heterogeneity was noted with respect to their diagnostic efficacies. The database search identified six studies including 578 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging were 86% (95% confidence interval: 83-88%) and 81% (95% confidence interval: 77-84%), respectively, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of white-light bronchoscopy were 70% (95% confidence interval: 66-74%) and 66% (95% confidence interval: 62-70%), respectively. The pooled relative risks for the sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging vs the sensitivity and specificity of white-light bronchoscopy for the detection of early and invasive lung cancer were 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.67) and 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.42), respectively, and sensitivity analysis showed that narrow-band imaging exhibited good diagnostic efficacy with respect to detecting early and invasive lung cancer and that the results of the study were stable. Narrow-band imaging was superior to white light bronchoscopy with respect to detecting early and invasive lung cancer; however, the specificities of the two modalities did not differ significantly.
ABSTRACT Screening promising L. thermophiles with high productivity, high efficiency and strong adaptability are very important in lactic acid industry. For this purpose, 80MeV/u carbon ions were applied to irradiate L. thermophiles. After high-throughput screening, a mutant, named SRZ50, was obtained. Different carbon sources or nitrogen sources were provided to investigate carbon or nitrogen source utilization between mutant SRZ50 and wild type, and different fermentation periods were also chose to study fermentation characteristic between mutant SRZ50 and wild type. The results showed that mutant SRZ50 exhibited the enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production from wild type. When glucose or fructose was the sole carbon source, the L(+)-lactic acid production by mutant SRZ50 was both the highest, respectively, 23.16 ± 0.72 g/L or 23.24 ± 0.66 g/L, which had a significant increase from that of wild type (P<0.01), following obvious increase in biomass (P<0.05). When yeast powder was the sole nitrogen source, it can promote mutant SRZ50 to accumulate the highest L-(+)-lactic acid accumulation, which also had a significant increase from that of wild type (P<0.01). Under different fermentation periods, it was obtained that mutant SRZ50 all exhibited significant increase in L-(+)-lactic acid accumulation from wild type. In conclusion, a mutant strain with improved production profiles for L-(+)-lactic acid, was obtained, indicating that heavy ions can be an efficient tool to improve metabolic product accumulations in microbes.
ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa) is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs). Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD) into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI)–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.