Pancreatic cancer is the second most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract in the US, and adenocarcinoma has been identified as the most common type of pancreatic cancer. Different types of pancreatic cancers have been classified: adenocarcinoma, ductal adenosquamous carcinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumors, endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cystic tumors, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions of the pancreas. Adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare, behave in a very aggressive way and is responsible for the 1 to 4% of the pancreatic exocrine neoplastic lesions. We describe the case of an 82-years-old African American female, presenting to our institution with quantifiable weight loss (12 kg in 3 months), jaundice and abdominal pain. On admission, laboratory tests were obtained: total bilirubin: 11.07 mg/dl with a direct fraction of 10.32 mg/dl. Cross-sectional abdominal CT scan with contrast, showed a lesion localized in the pancreatic head (hypodense on T1, measuring 3.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm), with vascular invasion of the portal vein. EUS showed a solid, hypoechoic, not well-defined lesion (measuring 3.98 x 3.80 cm), localized between the head and neck of the pancreas. EUS-FNA was performed with a 22G needle using the fanning technique. The cytological specimens demonstrated components of both squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent ERCP procedure, and biliary drainage was performed with an entirely covered metallic stent placement. After a month from the procedures, the patient died due to the severity of the disease. Endoscopic ultrasound has proven to be the best method to diagnose solid pancreatic lesions, including rare and aggressive type of tumors like primary adenosquamous cell carcinoma that we described in this very interesting case report
BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon) or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.
RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que exibiam ectasia vascular do antro gástrico de aspecto difuso confluente ou estriado. Grupo II - 10 pacientes que apresentavam aspecto difuso pontilhado não-confluente. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes do grupo I apresentavam auto-anticorpos, exceto um paciente no qual não foi pesquisado. Três eram cirróticos, três tinham hipotireoidismo e todos apresentavam gastrite atrófica. No grupo II, todos tinham doença hepática não-autoimune, com plaquetas menores que 90.000. Dez pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio, com 2 a 36 meses de seguimento. A ectasia vascular do antro gástrico recorreu em todos os pacientes que continuaram em acompanhamento e um paciente não respondeu ao tratamento para controle de sangramento agudo. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se a existência de dois grupos distintos de pacientes com ectasia vascular do antro gástrico: um grupo associado a distúrbios imunológicos e outro com doença hepática não auto-imune e plaquetopenia. O tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio apresentou alta recurrência das ectasias vasculares.