ABSTRACT Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) has been a complication among people living with HIV/AIDS. To investigate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis among HIV-infected people living in São Paulo city, we studied 108 HIV-infected patients (79 men and 29 women). We extracted data from patients’ medical records and BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Median age of participants was 42 years (interquartile range [IQR] 36-48 years), and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 4.01 years (IQR 2-11 years). Patients had acquired HIV primarily by the sexual route (men who have sex with men 44%, heterosexual 49%). Median age, duration of HIV infection, duration of ART and CD4 nadir were similar for men and women. Plasma viral load was undetectable for 53 patients (49%). Median CD4 T cell count was 399 cells/µL (IQR 247 - 568). Twenty five patients (23%) had LBMD, and there was no statistically significant difference between men and women (<-1). The associated risk factors for LBMD were older age (≥ 50 years old) and smoking with a RR of 3.87 and 2.80, respectively. Thus, despite the lack of statistically significant relationship between the use of ART and LBMD or between duration of ART and LBMD, these factors should be addressed in larger studies.