ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and severity of children and adolescents affected by COVID-19 treated at Sabará Hospital Infantil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, retrospective, and observational study. All cases of COVID-19 confirmed by RT-qPCR of patients seen at the hospital (emergency room, first-aid room, and ICU) were analyzed. The severity of the cases was classified according to the Chinese Consensus. Results: Among the 115 children included, a predominance of boys (57%) was verified, and the median age was two years. A total of 22 children were hospitalized, 12 in the ICU. Of the total, 26% had comorbidities with a predominance of asthma (13%). Fever, cough, and nasal discharge were the most frequent symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 58% of children and gastrointestinal symptoms, by 34%. Three children were asymptomatic, 81 (70%) had upper airway symptoms, 15 (13%) had mild pneumonia, and 16 (14%) had severe pneumonia. Hospitalized children were younger than non-hospitalized children (7 months vs. 36 months). In hospitalized patients, a higher frequency of irritability, dyspnea, drowsiness, respiratory distress, low oxygen saturation, and hepatomegaly was observed. Chest radiography was performed in 69 children with 45% of abnormal exams. No child required mechanical ventilation and there were no deaths. Conclusions: Most of children and adolescents affected by COVID-19 had mild upper airway symptoms. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 were more severe among younger children who exhibited gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms more frequently.
RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as manifestações clínicas e a gravidade de crianças e adolescentes acometidos pela COVID-19 atendidos no Sabará Hospital Infantil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal, retrospectivo e observacional. Foram analisados os atendimentos (pronto-socorro, enfermaria e Unidade de Terapia Intensiva - UTI) que apresentavam diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado por RT-qPCR. A gravidade dos casos foi classificada de acordo com o Consenso Chinês. Resultados: Entre as 115 crianças incluídas, houve predominância do sexo masculino (57%) e a mediana de idade foi de 2 anos. Vinte e duas crianças foram hospitalizadas, sendo 12 em UTI. Do total, 26% apresentava comorbidades com predomínio de asma (13%). Febre, tosse e coriza foram os sintomas mais frequentes. Sintomas respiratórios foram relatados por 58% das crianças e gastrintestinais por 34%. Três crianças apresentavam-se assintomáticas, 81 (70%) com sintomas de vias aéreas superiores, 15 (13%) com quadro de pneumonia leve e 16 (14%) com pneumonia grave. As crianças hospitalizadas eram mais jovens do que as não hospitalizadas (7 meses vs. 36 meses). Nas hospitalizadas, observamos maior frequência de irritabilidade, dispneia, sonolência, desconforto respiratório, baixa saturação de oxigênio e hepatomegalia. Radiografia de tórax foi realizada por 69 crianças com 45% de exames alterados. Nenhuma criança necessitou de ventilação mecânica e não houve óbitos. Conclusões: Observamos que crianças e adolescentes acometidos pela Covid-19 apresentaram, em sua maioria, quadros leves e limitados a sintomas de via aérea superior. A gravidade do quadro clínico da Covid-19 foi maior entre as crianças de menor idade que tinham com maior frequência sintomas gastrintestinais e pulmonares.
Abstract Objectives To compare cultured microorganisms identified on endotracheal tubes biofilms through sonication technique with traditional tracheal aspirate collected at extubation of pediatric intensive care unit patients. Methods Demographic and epidemiological data were analyzed to identify factors possibly related with the microbiological profile of the two collection methods. Associations between categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, or Student's t test. p-Value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Thirty endotracheal tubes and tracheal aspirates samples from 27 subjects were analyzed. Only one patient presented the clinical diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Overall, 50% of bacteria were Gram-negative bacilli, followed by Gram-positive bacteria in 37%, and fungi in 10%. No statistically significant difference on the distribution of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria (p = 0.996), and fungi (p = 0.985) were observed between the collection methods. Pseudomonas spp. was the most frequent microorganism identified (23.8%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (18.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (15.9%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11.2%), and Klebsiella spp. (8.6%). Concordant results between methods amounted to 83.3%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii showed carbapenem resistance in 50% and 43.7% of the isolates, respectively. In general, cultures after endotracheal tubes sonication (non-centrifuged sonication fluid and centrifuged sonication fluid) yielded bacteria with higher rates of antimicrobial resistance compared to tracheal aspirates cultures. Additionally, in 12 subjects (40%), we observed discrepancies regarding microbiologic profiles of cultures performed using the collection methods. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that sonication technique can be applied to ET biofilms to identify microorganisms attached to their surface with a great variety of species identified. However, we did not find significant differences in comparison with the traditional tracheal aspirate culture approach.