Objective: To verify the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis in the older population from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. - Methods: A cross-sectional study with 598 older adults. The bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by total BMD, lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD), femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD), and osteopenia/osteoporosis was defined when BMD (g/cm²) <–1 standard deviation of the sample mean. Sarcopenia was identified by the appendicular muscle mass index (AMMI), by sex, when AMMI <7.26 kg/m² for men and <5.5 kg/m² for women. - Results: Of the 598 subjects (63–93 years) in the sample, 65.4% were women. The proportion of altered BMD was 52.1% for total BMD, 62.5% for LS-BMD, and 70.9% for FN-BMD in women, while for men, altered BMD proportion was 29.3% for total BMD, 24.5% for LS-BMD, and 64.9% for FN-BMD. After adjustments, sarcopenia was associated with increased odds of altered LS-BMD (OR: 12.25; 95% CI: 3.66–40.96 and OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.30–6.48) and FN-BMD (OR: 5.59; 95% CI: 1.64–19.05 and OR: 7.95; 95% CI: 3.23–19.57), respectively for women and men. The association between sarcopenia and altered total BMD (OR: 11.08; 95% CI: 3.84–31.97) was observed only in women. - Conclusion: The proportion of osteopenia/osteoporosis was higher in women. Sarcopenia was associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis in the population from Florianópolis, except for total BMD in men.
Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre sarcopenia e osteopenia/ osteoporose em idosos de Florianópolis, Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal com 598 idosos. A osteopenia/osteoporose foi identificada por meio da densidade mineral óssea (DMO) total, DMO coluna lombar (DMO-CL) e DMO colo do fêmur (DMO-CF), sendo considerada alterada quando DMO (g/cm2) <–1 desvio padrão da média da amostra. A sarcopenia foi identificada por meio do índice de massa muscular apendicular (IMMA, Kg/m2), de acordo com o sexo, quando IMMA < 7,26 kg/m2 para homens e < 5,5 kg/m2 para mulheres. Resultados: Dos 598 indivíduos (63 a 93 anos) da amostra, 65,4% eram mulheres. A prevalência de osteopenia/osteoporose foi 52,1% para DMO-total, 62,5% para DMO-CL e 70,9% para DMO-CF nas mulheres. Para os homens, a osteopenia/osteoporose foi de 29,3% para DMO total, 24,5% para DMOCL e 64,9% para DMO-CF. Após ajustes, a sarcopenia foi associada a maiores chances de DMO-CL alterada (OR: 12,25; IC 95%: 3,66–40,96 e OR: 2,90; IC 95%: 1,30–6,48) e DMO-CF alterada (OR: 5,59; IC 95%: 1,64–19,05 e OR: 7,95; IC 95%: 3,23–19,57), para mulheres e homens, respectivamente. A sarcopenia foi associada à DMO-total alterada (OR: 11,08; IC 95%: 3,84–31,97) apenas em mulheres. Conclusão: A prevalência de osteopenia/osteoporose foi maior entre as mulheres. Idosos sarcopênicos apresentam maiores chances de ter osteopenia/osteoporose, exceto para DMO total em homens.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of host preference, mating, and release density on Telenomus remus (Nixon, 1937) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). First, we tested host preference of T. remus (free choice test) offered a choice between eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and S. frugiperda. Parasitism capacity and host preference (S. frugiperda) of T. remus reared on either of the two hosts did not differ. Secondly, we evaluated the influence of mating behavior of T. remus females on its parasitism. Only the offspring sex ratio differed between treatments, indicating that the species reproduces by parthenogenesis of the arrhenotoky type. Finally, we evaluated the influence of release density on T. remus parasitism. This was tested by releasing different numbers of the parasitoid per S. frugiperda egg using T. remus reared for different numbers of generations on C. cephalonica eggs. The regression analysis between percentage of parasitism and density of released T. remus females showed a quadratic effect for all tested parasitoid generations (F35, F40, and F45) with maximum parasitism from 65.07% to 71.69%. Our results allow the conclusion that (a) T. remus prefers S. frugiperda eggs, regardless of the host on which this parasitoid was reared, showing no preimaginal conditioning; (b) Mating does not affect the number of eggs parasitized by T. remus or the development of its offspring; and (c) The optimal T. remus release density when reared on C. cephalonica is between 0.133 and 0.150 females/S. frugiperda.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the development and reproduction of the black armyworm, Spodoptera cosmioides when larvae fed on leaves of Bt-corn hybrids, expressing a single Cry1F and also Cry1F, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 in pyramided corn and their non-Bt-isoline (hybrid 2B688), as well as on leaves of two soybean isolines expressing the Cry1Ac protein and its non-Bt isoline (A5547-227). We also assessed the effect of these Bt and non-Bt plants on the leaf consumption rate of S. cosmioides larvae. This pest was unable to develop when fed on any of the corn isolines (Bt and non-Bt). When both 1st and 3rd instar larvae were fed on corn leaf, mortality was 100% in both Bt and non-Bt corn. In contrast, when corn leaves were offered to 5th instar larvae, there were survivors. Defoliation and leaf consumption was higher with non-Bt corn than with both of the Bt corn isolines. There was no negative effect of Bt soybean leaves on the development and reproduction of S. cosmioides with respect to all evaluated parameters. Our study indicates that both Bt and non-Bt corn adversely affect the development of S. cosmioides while Bt soybean did not affect its biology, suggesting that this lepidopteran has major potential to become an important pest in Bt soybean crops.
As redes neurais supervisionadas são compostas por unidades de processamento organizadas de forma paralela, em que cada uma delas computa determinadas funções matemáticas. As unidades são organizadas em camadas e ligadas por pesos sinápticos que ponderam as entradas, buscando ajustá-los a um padrão de saída previamente estabelecido. É fundamental a correta definição do número de camadas e da quantidade de neurônios em cada uma delas, uma vez que o treinamento é influenciado diretamente por esses parâmetros. Para explorar esse ponto, dados de cubagem de cinco empresas diferentes foram reunidos em uma planilha e, de forma aleatória, divididos em conjunto de treinamento e conjunto de validação. Os dados foram apresentados para três redes com arquiteturas diferentes. A avaliação foi feita por meio de gráficos de resíduos e teste t (p< = 0,05). Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que, para obter estimativas de volume por árvore, a rede neural deve ser construída com mais de 10 neurônios na primeira camada, sendo recomendado o uso de mais de uma camada intermediária.
Supervised neural networks are composed of parallel processing units. Each unit, called neurons, computes certain mathematical functions. The units are arranged in layers and connected by synaptic weights to balance the entries, trying to adjust them to a predetermined output pattern. The correct definition of the number of layers and the number of neurons in each layer are crucial, once the training is directly influenced by these parameters. To explore this point, data of scaling from five different regions were arranged in a spreadsheet and randomly divided into training and validation set. Data were presented for three networks with different architectures. The evaluation was performed using residual plots and t test (p <0.05). To estimate volume per tree, the neural network must be built with more than 10 neurons in the first layer, and it is recommended the use of more than one intermediate layer.