Abstract This study investigated the appropriate methodology required to measure single carbon fibers electrical resistivity. Two- and four-probe methods were evaluated for this measurement. Comparing results for single filaments of pitch-based and PAN-based fibers shows that the two-probe method gives acceptable results for PAN-based fibers, but much higher deviations from adjusted resistivity for pitch-based fibers (>15%). The four-probe method shows small deviations (<1%) for both precursors and is the most suitable for measurements of pitch-based carbon fibers. The four-probe method gives higher accuracy than the two-probe for all samples tested.
Chemical agents are substances used for their toxic effects on humans, animals and plants. The main objective of chemical defense is to develop systems that reduce these effects while minimizing impact on the operational capacity of military troops. In this work, a report on the development of chemical warfare agents since the First World War and their classification is presented. Special attention is given to neurotoxic agents, the most lethal group of chemical agents known to date.