Bioactive glasses (BG) are versatile materials for various biomedical applications due to their capacity to bond to hard and soft tissues. These materials can be produced with different nominal compositions, such that include fluoride ions. Fluorine-containing-BG (BGF) can be produced by the sol-gel method, and its properties can be changed by altering the synthesis parameters. Here, BGF particle size between 235 nm-390 nm were obtained through sol-gel method assisted by ultrasound energy (BGU) or through mechanical stirring (BGM). The BGM and BGU particles showed highly dispersed spherical shape, moreover BGM are mesoporous and BGU are dense structures, indicating mixing mode can alter mainly the material textural characteristics. All compositions have apatite forming ability, verified by DRX from 14 days in SBF. The results showed CaF2 on the surface of BGF particles, indicating that part of F ions was not incorporated in the material network. The samples did not show any cytotoxicity towards human cells in Cellular Metabolic Activity and Calcein assays. This study showed that mechanical agitation was more efficient to produce mesoporous particles to be applied as carrier of drugs and molecules to the biological environment, so BGM can be used as a more efficient biomaterial for such applications.
Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs) are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1) the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon) modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2) the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol) were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.
Non-woven mats of nanofibers of three biodegradable polymers, viz. poly(lactic acid), PDLLA, poly(Ε-caprolactone), PCL, and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, and their nanocomposites with montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) were produced by electrospinning. The morphology, thermal behavior and internal structure of the nanofibers were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, respectively. The nanofibers of the nanocomposites had lower diameters than the nanofibers of the corresponding neat polymers, while the nanofibers from PBAT and PBAT/MMT were the least crystalline. The cell viability of all the nanofibers was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt by the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex present in the mitochondria (MTT test). None of the nanofibers was toxic to the cells and the PBAT and PBAT/MMT nanofibers exhibited a more favorable environment for developing fibroblasts from cardiomyocytes than the control, probably due to their low crystallinity. These results demonstrated the potential use of nanofibers´ mats as scaffolds for cell growth.
Mantas não tecidas de nanofibras de três polímeros biodegradáveis poli(ácido láctico), PDLLA, poli(Ε-caprolactona), PCL, e poli(butileno adipato-co-tereftalato), PBAT e seus nanocompósitos com uma nanoargila montmorilonita (MMT) foram produzidas por eletrofiação. A morfologia, o comportamento térmico e a estrutura interna das nanofibras foram analisados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e difração de raios X, respectivamente. Observou-se que as nanofibras dos nanocompósitos possuíam diâmetros menores do que os correspondentes polímeros puros e que as nanofibras de PBAT puro e de PBAT/MMT apresentavam a menor cristalinidade de todas as mantas. A viabilidade celular de todas as nanofibras foi analisada pela técnica de redução do sal de tetrazolium pelo complexo enzimático piruvato desidrogenase presente na matriz de mitocôndrias (teste MTT). Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma manta nanofibrílica apresentou toxicidade às células e que as nanofibras de PBAT puro e seu nanocompósito propiciaram ainda um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento celular de fibroblastos de cardiomiócitos do que as condições oferecidas pelo controles, provavelmente por apresentarem menores diâmetros e baixa cristalinidade em relação às demais nanofibras. Estes resultados mostram o potencial de uso destas mantas nanofibrílicas como suportes de crescimento celular.