ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate visual contamination rates of carcasses of broilers slaughtered in establishments supervised by the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) and efficiency of carcass washing in replacement of trimming. The work was divided into three parts: analysis of partial and total carcass condemnation by contamination in hot (October to March) and cold (April to September) periods; evaluation of microbiological contamination before and after washing 800 carcasses (400 that did not go through washing x 400 that went through washing); and carcass washing test. For the test, twenty carcasses were evaluated in five treatments: carcasses without contamination - before washing; carcasses without contamination - after washing; contaminated carcasses - before washing and before trimming; contaminated carcasses - after washing; contaminated carcasses - after trimming. Hot and cold periods obtained a similar number and weight of slaughtered chickens. There were no differences regarding condemnation by contamination. Periods of the year did not influence the average weight of the birds slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Carcass washing in the slaughter line was effective in reducing total bacterial contamination, E. coli, and enterobacteria. There is a similarity in the reduction of condemnations by contamination, evidencing that the uniformity of production systems. Although it is not yet a reality in Brazilian slaughterhouses, the washing procedure can be considered a safe replacement for trimming.
ABSTRACT Intensive broiler production requires large flock density, which compromises litter quality and increases the prevalence of footpad lesions. The present study aimed at comparing the incidence of footpad dermatitis of broilers reared in two different rearing environments. Data from two broiler houses were recorded during 42 d. Air temperature and relative humidity; litter moisture, pH, and temperature; footpad surface temperature; and the incidence of footpad lesions was investigated. Litter quality was analyzed in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two house types (dark house or open-sided house) and four rearing phases (21, 28, 35, and 42 d of growth), with four replicates per treatment using 12 replicates. Four replicates were used for analyzing the air environment data. For the footpad lesion identification, a randomly factorial scheme of recording the surface temperature was built (2 x 2) using two houses, and the broiler sex using 15 replicates in the grow-out stages. The measures of association (odds ratio and risk ratio) were calculated. The multi-criteria analysis (Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP) was applied for estimating the house that provided less prevalence of lesions. The field data did not provide enough evidence for selection of a particular house with less incidence of footpad dermatitis. However, when applying the measures of association data, and corresponding literature data to the AHP, there was an indication that the dark-house provided broiler rearing condition that reduced the incidence of footpad lesions.
ABSTRACT Brazilian processing plants have identified the so-calledspaghetti breast myopathy characterized by muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology. This study aimed at estimating the incidence of spaghetti breast myopathyin broilers from three commercial genetic strains (Ross, Cobb, Hubbard) reared in two different housing systems (DH, Dark house, and TS, Tunnel system), presenting different controlled ventilation systems and light availability. Breast meat samples (n=5,580) were collected and macroscopically evaluated for spaghetti breast myopathy according to a 0-2 scale, as 0 = normal, 1 = intermediate or moderate, and 2 = severe. A higher number of broilers reared in DH presented normal breasts and moderate myopathy relative to TS-reared birds. Ross broilers presented a higher incidence of normal breasts compared with Cobb and Hubbard broilers. The risk of presenting spaghetti breast myopathy was higher in broilers reared in DH than those in reared in TS, indicating that the exposure to DH environmental conditions may increase the chance of myopathy incidence. Broilers reared in dark houses presented 26% higher chance and 13% higher risk of showing spaghetti-breast myopathy the than those reared in tunnel-ventilated systems.
ABSTRAT Arthritis implies inflammation of the intra-articular structures and is one of the causes of condemnation in broilers. The disease is associated with infectious agents such as Staphylococcus aureus, which may pose a potential public health risk. This work was conducted with the objective to determine the occurrence of arthritis in broiler chickens, predominantly of bacterial staphylococcal origin and if there is a difference between the degrees of injury regarding the presence of the bacterium and the histological lesion. Sixty samples of chickens diagnosed with arthritis by Federal Inspection Service from commercial slaughterhouse were collected according to their severity (of mild and severe degree) and submitted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis. There was bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus in 3.3% of the samples classified as mild degree in 10% of the samples classified as severe grade of lesion (p=0,29). For histopathological evaluation, 16.67% and 70% of the samples presented inflammatory infiltrate in mild and severe degrees, respectively (p=0,0001). Mild degree arthritis is related to non-infectious lesions in their higher prevalence while severe-grade arthritis has infectious causes. The condemnation criteria were efficient since S. aureus could be present regardless of the degree of the lesion diagnosed in arthritis.
ABSTRACT The pre-slaughter management is one of the predisposing factors to the reduction in the quality of the carcass and broiler meat, mainly for being a stressful condition. This study evaluates the inclusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) in the water used in the diet of pre-slaughter broilers for the first time. The carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in the poultry production of an experimental sector of the Federal University of Grande Dourados - UFGD. A total of 2,594 broilers were distributed in an entirely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 3x2x2, with three different lemongrass concentrations in the form of infusion (0. 1 and 5 g/L), two sexes and two genetic strains (Ross 308® and Cobb 500®), and with four replications. After 42 days, 144 broilers were slaughtered, and the quality parameters of carcass and meat were evaluated. A higher incidence of scratches and higher water retention capacity were found in Ross 308® male (p<0.05). Less exudate of breast fillets loss was observed in broiler Ross 308® males 72 h post-mortem (p<0.05). There was an interaction between sex and lemongrass levels in the drinking water of the broilers in the sensory analysis of meat (p<0.05), more preferably of chewiness and juiciness for males undergoing free diet for juiciness and lemongrass in the female diet with 5g/L. The use of lemongrass infusions in pre-slaughter did not bring considerable benefits to the quality of carcass and meat of broiler.
ABSTRACT Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average) and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05) was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%). Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05) during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05) were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the quality of incubated Japanese quail eggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.
ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED) of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps) with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p<0.05) when LED bulbs were compared with fluorescent lamps. The egg weight of the birds exposed to the red LED was similar to those under a fluorescent lamp (p>0.05). The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05) than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.
ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating a methodology to estimate the angulation and equilibrium condition, relating them to gait score and the main diseases of the locomotion system in males and females of commercial broiler strains. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2x2) was applied, consisting of two sexes and two genetic strains, with five replicates of 53 chickens each. The following characteristics related to broiler locomotion were studied: gait score (GS); incidence of Valgus (VAL) and Varus (VAR) deformities and of pododermatitis (POD); body angle relative the ground (ANG); equilibrium condition (EC); body weight (BW) and breast weight (BrW); and incidence of femoral degeneration (FD), tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and spondylolisthesis (SPO). GS, and VAL and VAR were assessed inside a broiler house. Birds were then photographed to estimate ANG and EC. Birds were sacrificed at 42 days of age and analyzed for FD, TD, and SPO. Breast percentage was not influenced by sex or strain. Males showed better ANG than females, regardless of strain. Overall, the strains studied showed prostrated EC. The correlation between GS and the evaluated traits was low. There was a moderate to high association between EC and ANG both in males and females. GS showed low correlation with locomotion problems, and therefore, it is a poor indicator of skeletal diseases. On the other hand, the moderate to high correlations of ANG and EC with locomotion problems make them better indicators of bone diseases than gait score, which is possibly more related to EC and body posture than to bone pathologies.
ABSTRACT Laying hens reared under tropical conditions are usually under heat stress. Propolis is known for its pharmaceutical properties, such as increasing cell tolerance to hyperthermia, because of its antioxidants effects. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of different dietary propolis inclusion levels on the performance, egg quality, and bird surface temperature of layers. In this experiment 120 55-wk-old Isa Brown(r) layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into four treatments (0, 1, 2 and 3% dietary propolis inclusion levels), with three replicates of ten birds each. Performance and egg quality parameters, and birds' surface temperature were evaluated. Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were influenced by the treatments. Bird surface temperature was not affected by propolis dietary inclusion. The egg yolk color changed with the treatment (p<0.05) when brightness and red and yellow concentration were considered. Evaluators noted a slight difference among treatments during the sensory analysis. The use of propolis in the hens' diet did not improve performance and worsened the eggs' quality.
ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1) 3,500 IU (control); (2) control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3) control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r) 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05), the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05), except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed) added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.
ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf) to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water), sex (male or female), and genetic strain (Ross(r) 308 or Cobb(r) 500). The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05). The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05), being more frequent in Ross(r) 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.
Light is an important environmental variable for the regulation and control of broiler behavior. Some light sources may also add heat to the rearing environment, and indirectly affect the heat exchange between the birds and the environment. This study aimed at investigation the surface temperature and behavioral response of broilers reared in an environment with monochromatic light emitted diode (LED). Broilers were reared inside commercial dark houses under two treatments: fluorescent or LED light sources. Bird surface temperature and behavior was monitoredfrom the first day of grow-out. The houses were virtually divided in four quadrants, and the variables were monitored in the geometric center of each quadrant. Surface temperature results were mapped, behavioral responses were divided as normal and abnormal, and their interaction with light source was tested. Broiler surface temperature in both houses presented lack of homogeneity, independently of the light source. No effect of the light source on any of the evaluated behavior was found in the present study. The long life and energy savings obtained with the LED light source suggest its use in broiler production.
The research aimed to evaluate the relationship between the thermal environment of the rest pens in a pig slaughterhouse and the surface temperature (ST) of the animals as well as the effect of intermittent water spraying on thermal comfort. There were two visits to slaughter industrial being in each selected three pens of rest, one for control treatment (no spray throughout the period) and two for the treatment of intermittent spraying water (30 minutes intervals with constant spray followed by 30 minutes then turned off). Assessments began at the time of discharging animals in which are taken the thermographic images from lots using an infrared thermographic camera. After housing in the pens, were registered the thermographic images and the respiratory frequency (RF) every five minutes for four hours. Were evaluated the temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index (THI). Considering the values of THI was observed that the animals remained in a condition of comfort only at the time of his arrival at the slaughterhouse. The ST and RF of the animals kept in the pens without sprinkler system (control) showed a linear increase in function of time of day, with increasing temperature. The treatment with intermittent sprinkling of water was observed oscillatory behavior of the ST and RF, however it was always lower than the control treatment, even in times when the water sprinklers were turned off. The time required of spray to reduction and stabilization of the ST of the animals was limited to the combination of temperature and relative humidity, being estimated at 25 minutes at times of higher THI. The maximum environmental temperature during evaluation was 28.4 ºC.
Se evaluó la relación entre el ambiente térmico de las pocilgas de descanso en un matadero de cerdos y la temperatura superficial (TS) de los animales, así como el efecto de la pulverización intermitente de agua sobre el confort térmico. Se llevaron a cabo dos visitas a un matadero comercial, y en cada uno de ellos fueron seleccionadas tres pocilgas de descanso, una destinada al tratamiento de control (sin pulverizar durante todo el período) y dos para el tratamiento de pulverización Intermitente de agua (sucesivamente 30 minutos con aspersión y 30 minutos sin aspersión). Las evaluaciones se iniciaron en el momento de la descarga de los animales, en la cual se registraron imágenes termográficas de los lotes con una cámara termográfica infrarroja. Después del alojamiento en la porqueriza se registraron imágenes termográficas y la frecuencia respiratoria (FR) de los animales cada cinco minutos durante cuatro horas. También fueron registradas la temperatura y la humedad relativa del aire y se calcularon los índices de temperatura y humedad (ITH). Considerando los valores de (ITH) se observó que los animales se mantuvieron en un estado de confort térmico sólo en el momento de su llegada al matadero. La TS y la FR de los animales mantenidos en la pocilga, sin el sistema de aspersión (control) presentaron una elevación lineal en función de la hora del día, o sea, conforme al aumento de la temperatura ambiental. En el tratamiento con aspersión intermitente de agua se observó un comportamiento sinusoidal del TS y FR, entretanto las mismas se mantuvieron siempre inferiores al tratamiento control, incluso en los momentos que los rociadores de agua se encontraban desconectados. El tiempo de aspersión necesario para la reducción y estabilización de la TS de los animales estuvo condicionado al binomio temperatura-humedad relativa del aire, siendo estimado en 25 minutos en los horarios de mayor ITH. La temperatura ambiente máxima durante las evaluaciones fue de 28,4 ºC.
Black bone syndrome (BBS) affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen) of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L), and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R) positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening). Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor), assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good) by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), and the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05) was used to analyze other characteristics. Confidence intervals were established for BBS based on *L values (<37.5=BBS and >37.5=normal). The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.
This study aimed at evaluating total or partial replacement of corn by sorghum in broiler diets and at estimating the effect of the pigment supplementation on broiler performance, carcass and cuts yield, and possible breast and leg pigmentation. We used 1680 one-d-old Ross® 308 broilers. Birds were sexed and distributed according to a completely randomized design (2 x 3 + 1). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and diets with two levels corn replacement by sorghum (50 and 100%) and three pigments levels, with four replicates of 60 birds per treatment. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary replacement of corn by sorghum on performance, carcass and parts yield, and no changes in breast and leg meat pH (p >0.05). Meat redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and luminosity (L*) increased (p < 0.05) as pigment inclusion levels increased. It was concluded that the use of sorghum instead of corn did not affect broiler performance or carcass and cuts yield. When adequate pigments were used, meat color significantly improved.